# Literature Review On PID Controller

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Chapter 2 Literature Review Theory and law PID Controller PID controller is one of the methods for temperature control and is widely used in process control industry due to simple design and easy to implement in industrial [1]. PID controller consists of three controllers, which is proportional (P) controller, Integral (I) controller, and derivative (D) controller [2]. The equation for output of the PID control can be described as: u(t)=K(e(t)+ 1/T_i ∫_0^t▒〖e(τ) dτ+ T_(d ) de(t)/dt〗) [2] Which e is the control error, K is the proportional (P) gain, Ti is the integral (I) time, and Td is the derivative time. Figure 1 shows the PID controller design using operational amplifier (op-amp). Figure 1: PID controller design [3] Proportional controller functions as to stabilize the unstable process [4]. The objective of…show more content…
G. Ziegler and N. B. Nichols, "Optimum Settings for Automatic Controllers," American Society of Mechanical Engineers, pp. 759–768, Nov. 1942. [10] C. B. Prakash and R. S. N. Naik, "Tuning of PID Controller by Ziegler-Nichols Algorithm for Position Control of DC Motor," International Journal of Innovative Science, Engineering & Technology, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 379–382, May 2014. [11] G. C. Goodwin, S. F. Graebe, and M. E. Salgado, Control system design. United States: Pearson Education (US), 2000. [12] C. C. Hang, K. J. Åström, and W. K. Ho, "Refinements of the Ziegler–Nichols tuning formula," IEE Proceedings D Control Theory and Applications, vol. 138, no. 2, p. 111, 1991. [13] Yu. G. GUREVICH and J. E. VELAZQUEZ-PEREZ, "Peltier effect in semiconductors," Wiley Encyclopedia of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, pp. 1–21, Apr. 2014. [14] O. F. Francis, C. J. Lekwuwa, and I. H. John, "Performance Evaluation of a Thermoelectric Refrigerator," International Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology (IJEIT), vol. 2, no. 7, pp. 18–24, Jan. 2013. [15] S. M. Maniyar, "1-Wire® Communication with PIC® Microcontroller,"