Literature Review On Parental Involvement

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Parent Involvement: A Key to Educational Success
Literature Review
Empire State College
Christina Mallett


It has been stated that students whose parents, guardians, and other significant adults who are actively involved in their learning are more likely to be successful in school. Student success here can be defined as intellectual potential, as well as social and cognitive growth. This literature review will examine critically what has been previously researched and written on parental involvement, with a focus on Kindergarten through fourth grade. In the past 30 years, there has been numerous case studies and research conducted in various learning environments on the levels of parental
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The models include the following: (1) Gordon’s System Approach, (2) the System Development Cooperation (SDC) study, (3) Berger’s Role Categories, (4) Chavkin and Williams’ Parent Involvement Roles, (5) Honigs Early Childhood Education Model, (6) Jones Levels of Parent Involvement, (7) Epstein’s Typologies, and (8) language minority parents’ involvement approach. A brief description of each of these models are as follows:

(1) Gordons’s System Approach (1979): This model is separated into four level in a social system model. The microsystem, which is the child and family and their strong influence on the development and school success of the child and the effort and energy required. The second level is the mesosystem, which is the neighborhood institutions such as school, recreation and stores etc. Gordon explains that the nature and quality of these institutions affect the family and the child in a less direct way. The third level is the exosystemic, which consist of an examination of local policies. These may include family leave policies for employers and social services from a community agency. These are believed to have an influence on the quality of family life. The fourth level is the macrosystem, which represents the major social, economic, and political aspects of larger society. According to Gordon, changes at this level have the potential for affecting large numbers of children and families. (Lunenburg & Irby, 2002)

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