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Literature Review On Pester Power

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2.2 EMPIRICAL LITERATURE REVIEW
According to Nash (2009), the concept of Pester power has been well researched into from different perspectives such as marketing, advertising, communications and developmental literature. It is also studied from the perspectives of effect on children and its use in advertising. However, this multiple perspective did not cover all views because' most researchers studied one or two players as against all concerned. This study investigated the views of 'all key players' in 'the game' i.e. father, mother, marketer, company and nutritionists. The study juxtaposes each players’ view with the others to fill up possible gap on the research in this topic.
METHODOLOGICAL LITERATURE REVIEW
Two notable and leading
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Pester power involves persistence asking for a particular product or service rather than others. McDermott et al. (2006:513) states ‘Underpinning the concept of pester power is children’s unprecedented power as consumers and their ability to deploy a variety of tactics to exert influence over purchasing by others '. Pester power is a tactic carried out by children in order to drive their demands. Others include: ‘A child’s ability to pester their parents into buying a certain product or brand’ (Goldstein, 1999:1); ‘The children’s ability to nag their parents into purchasing items they may not otherwise buy’ Martino (2004:1); ‘A child’s attempt to exert influence over parental purchases in a repetitive and sometimes confrontational way’ (Nicholls and Cullen, 2004:78). These definitions suggests that constant asking is an effective tactic to make demands and children have recognise the potency in 'getting what they want' especially when it gets the parent 'iritated'. Researches (McNeal, 1992; Nash,2009, ) have proven that 'pestering' is a successful tactic in fluencing others (Parents). Spungin (2004:37) who states ‘by advertising to children, companies are encouraging the child to nag their parents into buying something that is not good for them, they don’t need or the parent cannot afford’. It suggests further that if children were free from advertising’s exposure and influence they would cease to pester their parents for products (Nash,2009). This is considered an assumption because children have an instinct tactically pester for other things without exposure to the marketr's message. For instance, a two years old girl can pester her mother to put on a particular dress she likes for an outing as against her mother's choice. Likewise, breastfeeding babies will cry(nag) till they are breast fed ,because, they communicate by
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