Literature Review Performance Management and the Balanced Scorecard

6491 Words Nov 30th, 2012 26 Pages
Chapter 2
Literature Review

Since the Balanced Scorecard was developed in the 1990ÔÇÖs by Robert Kaplan and David Norton (1992), it has gained in popularity amongst academics and practitioners. In 1990, Kaplan and Norton led a research study of a lot of companies with the purpose of exploring the new methods of performance management. The importance of the study was an increasing belief that the financial measures of performance management were not as effective as before with the development of modern business enterprise. Representatives involved in the study companies, including the researchers Kaplan and Norton, were persuaded that the reliance on financial measures of performance had an effect on their ability to create value. After
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2003). Similar to Speckbacher et al. (2003), this study examines the structure of the BALANCED SCORECARD as a whole. This study is however, unique in that it addresses both the structure and use of the BALANCED SCORECARD. Kaplan & Norton (1992; 1996; 2001), the originators of the balanced scorecard, emphasize that the inclusion of non-financial measures is just one aspect of the balanced scorecard, noting that there are several structural attributes that make it unique from other frameworks, such as KPI (key performance indicator) cards and stakeholder cards. Kaplan & Norton (1996, 2001) also suggest that its unique structure allows it to be used as a strategic tool to steer organizations towards sustained long-term profitability. They argue that simply including non-financial metrics in their performance measurement system is not enough for organizations to learn, improve, and grow. If Kaplan and NortonÔÇÖs argument is correct, then companies with different levels of BALANCED SCORECARD adoption should see different results. This suggests a need to compare organizations that have different levels or numbers of balanced scorecard attributes to see if there are any differences. As well, academic studies may be more comparable if a clearly defined Balanced Scorecard was used. A clearly defined BALANCED SCORECARD would enable organizations and researchers to assess the level of BALANCED SCORECARD adoption which may help to explain some of…