Literature Review : Review Of Middle School Students

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CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF LITERATURE Introduction Chapter One described the rationale for evaluating and explaining middle school students’ perceptions, definition, and importance of leadership traits. The body of leadership literature was examined in the description of the At-Risk Learner, Definitions of Leadership, Student Perceptions of Leadership, Leadership and Gender, Leadership and Socio-economic Status, Leadership and Age, Leadership and Ethnicity, Leadership and Character, Leadership and Compassion, Leadership and Competency and Leadership and Community.. The At-Risk Learner In 1987, the Texas Education Agency (TEA) wrote on the legislation enacted to expand Texas Education Code (TEC) §21.557, Compensatory and Remedial Instruction. The legislation provided a definition of students in grades 7 - 12 considered to be at risk of dropping out of school and required districts to provide remedial and support programs for these students (TEC, 1988). The definition of “at-risk” students included students who had not advanced from one grade level to the next in two or more school years. In 2001, due to a change in the criteria used to identify learners as at-risk, Texas public schools experienced an increase in the number of students identified “at-risk” of dropping out of school. Senate Bill 702 (2001) expanded the definition of who were at-risk and who were eligible for additional educational support and services. In Texas, a learner is at-risk of dropping out if she/he:
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