Literature Study On Construction, Six Sigma, And Lean Construction

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2 LITERATURE STUDY 2.1 INTRODUCTION This chapter describes the concepts of waste, Lean Construction, Six Sigma and Lean Six Sigma. It provides an explanation of the tools and techniques of Lean and Six Sigma from the literature study. It also provides the case studies and frameworks for implementation of Lean and Six Sigma in the construction industry by various authors. 2.2. LEAN CONSTRUCTION 2.2.1 Introduction Lean Construction is inspired from the Toyota Production. Toyota production provided the Transform -Flow –Value(TFV) philosophy of production in 1950’s.(Koskela, 1992).According to this philosophy the production is not only transformation of the inputs to outputs but there exists a flow of resources and information which seeks to generate…show more content…
Appendix represents the wastes in the construction. Table 2-3 provides the type of wastes and causes of wastes used in the questionnaire survey. 2.2.3 Principles of Lean Construction Lean Construction has different sets of principles, tools and techniques that is applied to construction which lead to reduction in waste. Womac, Jones & Roos (1990) provided five key principles of lean construction to be adopted by an organization as follows: • Value: The organization should identify and maximize the requirements of the customers or value. • Value Stream: Value stream is defined as the identification of all the value adding elements. The organization should focus on value stream. • Flow: The organization should strive to achieve steady and uninterrupted flow of material and information. • Pull: The production system should be driven by the customer demand. Just-in –Time (JIT) approach is the adoption of the pull approach. • Perfection: After applying the first four principles of lean construction the organization should evaluate the performance and improve the process to obtain perfection. 2.2.4 Tools and Techniques of Lean…show more content…
It is the integration of the Should-Can-Will-Did analysis to provide different schedule. It is opposite to the conventional planning process where adherence to the master schedule is the most important. Lean Project Delivery System (LPDS) Lean Project Deliver system is a conceptual framework to implement the Lean construction for a project in all the stages in the project definition, design and construction. Collaboration It is defined as the collaboration of all the stakeholders in the planning, design, and construction process. Various tools like Building Integrated Modelling (BIM), Lean Project delivery system, communication techniques facilitate it. Kaizen Kaizen is defined as the continuous improvement while using the techniques of Lean construction. The organization implementing lean construction has a mechanism to evaluate performance of the techniques and continues improvements based on lessons. Implementation of lean construction is a continuous pursuit of perfection. Visual Aids Visual Aids help to understand the process and elements for all the part of the construction. They are also used to guide the workforce to do difficult tasks. 2.3 SIX
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