Lobbying and United States

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Any association of individuals or organizations, usually formally organized on the basis of one or more shared concerns, attempts to influence public policy in its favour. All interest groups share a desire to affect opinion or policy of the policy makers or target group to benefit themselves or their causes. Their goal could be a policy that exclusively benefits group members. They attempt to achieve their goals by lobbying—that is, by attempting to bring pressure to bear on policy makers to gain policy outcomes in their favour. Interest groups are a natural outgrowth of the communities of interest that exist in all societies. Politics and interests are inseparable. The common goals and sources of interest
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But by far the largest component of this category is government in its many forms. At the national level, government agencies, such as the British Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, lobby on their own behalf to secure funding or to prioritize certain issues; at the regional level, public universities lobby the appropriate government (e.g., provincial governments in Canada and state governments in the United States) for funding or legislation that benefits them; at the local level, school boards may lobby the local government for money for a new school gymnasium or for more funding for educational programs. At the international level, the United Nations may lobby its members to pay their outstanding contributions to the organization or to carry out Security Council resolutions. Although formally organized associations play a predominant role in traditional lobbying efforts, non-associational groups and interests often have an important influence. Such interests lack a formal organization or permanent structure. They include spontaneous protest movements formed in reaction to a particular policy or event and informal groups of citizens and officials of public or private organizations. For example, French farmers have sometimes held up traffic in Paris to protest government agricultural policy.

The role of interest groups in public policy making: pluralist
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