Logging And Land Conversion Activities For Agriculture And Palm Oil Plantation

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Logging and land conversion activities for agriculture and palm oil plantation by local communities, small-scale farms, and plantation companies in Indonesia through slash-and-burn method have brought a persistent phenomenon called the Transboundary Haze Pollution (THP) in Southeast Asia. Widespread forest/land fires and the resulting haze emerge from Sumatera and Kalimantan island, particularly intense during the dry season, have polluted the air of Singapore and Malaysia with poison smoke, thus causing economic, social, and environmental loss, posing serious health risk and inflicting regional tension (Jones, 2014; World Bank, 2015 & Islam et al, 2016). The government of Indonesia has introduced a number of legislations regarding the prevention and prohibition of burning forest and land, such as environmental protection and management and the control of pollution and environmental damage due to land and forest fires, however, it is far from satisfactory in tackling the THP problem. In terms of ASEAN perspectives, the ASEAN member countries have declared war against illegal logging and forest destruction, yet, the forest and land fires still occurred (Ariadno, 2013). Perceived economic and environmental benefits are believed to be the main contributing factor behind these activities. The plantation firms, which are mostly owned by the Indonesian, Malaysian, and Singaporean investor, certainly do have economic interest. Through combustion, which is the most inexpensive and

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