Logic, Metaphysics, Epistemology, And The Value Theory

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A1.) The four main divisions in Philosophy are: logic, metaphysics, epistemology, and the value theory. • The division of logic is essentially the division in which all reasoning of our knowledges is deemed correct. Logic focuses on arguments within reasoning and accounts for which arguments will be successful and which arguments will fail. The special subject of logic is the breakdown of the the three Laws of Thought: the law of identity, the law of contradiction, and the law of the excluded middle. ⁃ In his work of The Problems of Philosophy, Russell explains the three laws ⁃ The law of identity: "whatever is, is" (Russell) ⁃ This law basically states that "it is what it is" and cannot be something else ⁃ The law of contradiction: "nothing can be both and not be" (Russell) ⁃ It is never going to happen that something is one thing and not that same thing at the same time. (C being C cannot not be C at the same time) ⁃ The law of the excluded middle: "everything must either be or not be" (Russell) ⁃ In every and all situation, one thing cannot be another • The division of metaphysics in Philosophy is that of what Aristotle explained to be as "being as such". This branch answers the questions of what aspects of reality are visible and what is invisible in reality in regards to human understanding of reasoning. The special subject within metaphysics is the closely related field of ontology. Although the relationship can almost be seen as identical, the
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