Previously I would have defined an argument as a heated debate between two parties about who was "right," and who was, "wrong," about a specific subject. Now however, I understand that arguments (at least effective ones) are meant to be rhetorical. Effective arguments take advantage of logical appeals that we've learned about in our reading called, "Ethos, Logos, and Pathos." The rhetorical appeal of the author's credibility, the logic of the argument, and the emotional appeal of the audience respectively. We see rhetorical arguments constantly in our everyday lives, most notably within advertisements. When crafting an argument there can be three argumentative sub-types to follow. These sub-types include an Argument to Convince (in which the author is trying to change the audience's way of thinking about the subject), an argument to persuade (where the author is
The first question to answer when forming a rhetorical argument is quite simple; who is the audience? In this instance, the audience would be the teacher, a person of high authority. The author would have to speak to this audience more elaborately than they would normally. This would make the author appear to be more professional and may aid in reaching the goal.
Treason is a political crime committed against a state or government to which the person charged with treason owes a duty of allegiance. The dictionary defines treason as a violation of allegiance toward one’s country or sovereign, especially the betrayal of ones country by waging war against it or by consciously and purposely acting to aid its enemies. The men signing the declaration of independence were aware of the risk they ran of committing treason against the British king. The value that defense remained to be determined in a civil war. In civil wars, every man chooses his party, but generally that side with prevails arrogates the right of treating those who are vanquished as rebels. In the weeks preceding the Declaration of Independence,
As this semester comes to an end it is time to look back on all the lessons learns and assignment that I have spent so many hours on. Throughout this class we have been taught how to properly pose an argument and also perform a rhetorical analysis. The main key terms we have studied and come to are the logical appeals; ethos, pathos, and logos. Ethos is a logical appeal to ethics. It is used to convince another of their character or credibility. Logos is used to appeal to logic, this is where through research is mandatory to persuade by reason. Finally Pathos is used to appeal to emotion, it is used to try and instill a connection with the reader and subtly persuade them to the side they are arguing for. We have completed quite a few assignments
A deductive argument tends to work from the generalized to the more specific. It often referred to as a top-down approach informally. The conclusions that are made in deductive argument follow logically from the facts that are available. A deductive approach can be taken on the statement traditional publishing has been rendered unnecessary by the rise of digital publication. Electrical publishing which is also referred to as ePublishing or digital publishing involves the publication of e-books, electronic articles, digital libraries and EPUBS. It is becoming a common trend to distribute books, newspapers and even magazines directly to readers through tablet reading devices. This has been generated by vendors who operate online like Apple iTunes bookstore and books in the android market among others. Market researchers have made suggestions that most of the magazines and newspapers that will be in circulation will be done through digital means by 2015(Sader, 2004). Most of the publishing companies are also considering making agreements with these electronic publishing networks like Apple so that they can increase the publications through them and eventually no more traditional publishing will be done (Rothchild, I. 2006). From the look at the general trend in publishing that most people and firms are taking as depicted above, it is safe to take the deductive conclusion that "Traditional publishing has been rendered unnecessary by the
Inductive arguments claim that their conclusion probably follows from the premises. As a result, inductive arguments are either stronger or weaker, rather than either true or false. Some words and phrases commonly used in inductive arguments are probably, most likely, chances are, it is reasonable to suppose, we can expect, and it seems probable that. There are three common types of inductive arguments. Generalizations are drawing conclusions. Analogies are based on comparisons. Causal arguments are claiming this is the cause of that.
In chapter 2 of If A then B, Shenefelt and White explain the difference between what it is to have a logical argument and also explain the means of persuasion. The authors show the difference between the logical argumentation and persuasion by explaining how the Ancient Greeks and the Ancient Indians studied arguments. In other words, the main focus of chapter two dealt with distinguishing between what is logic and what is rhetoric. It was discussed that the means of persuasion involves getting people to agree with one by using techniques such as rhetoric. In contrast, logic depends on being rational. Persuasion is connected to rhetoric and logic is connected with rationality. In the example with the Ancient Greeks and the Ancient Indians,
Logic is reasoning, and if arguments are based off reason there would be little controversy. A philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer, after perceiving these effects defined arguments as rather a form intellectual fencing; hence, the success of winning depends on dialectic, or the ability to be persuasive. Dale Carnegie’s book is a set of stratagems on how to efficiently persuade people to your way of thinking. Carnegie implements a four step strategy on prestige and excellence. By imitating these four steps, in your daily life, your character will reflect positive changes in the way you think, and communicate with your peers.
Although inductive reasoning is– as we shall see - not logically continuous, it is nevertheless a seemingly parsimonious avenue for the formation of theories and conceptions about the world around us. The sun has risen and fallen every day up until this point in time and while this may not logically prove that it will do the same tomorrow, the popular belief is that this repetition gives us a firm ontological grounding for expecting it to do so. This does not seem unreasonable, at least in one sense of the word; indeed, if you happened to meet an individual who claimed to possess an agnostic belief about whether or not the sun is likely to reappear tomorrow, then you would most likely consider them to be a very odd person. So inductive inferences are all around us, they are the functional basis of our understanding of the world. For the sake of this paper, then, it is important to understand what we mean when we talk about an inductive inference.
Studying logic allows us to identify and combine ideas to support new ideas by seeing if the argument is valid or not. If valid then one can see if the argument is persuasive as it stands. For example, Everyone has a pet dog. Why don't we? The argument is "All people have a pet dog," "We are people," therefore we should have a pet dog. The argument is valid in it itself and can be persuasive by using the logic of we being a part of everyone
The inductive approach is easier, both to write and to receive. When writing a bad-news letter, it is imperative for the writer to be in a positive mindset. Writing a buffer paragraph first, puts the writer in a constructive frame of mind and the result will most likely be positive. “The chances of getting your audience to understand the reasons are much better before the bad news is presented…,” sums up my preference for the inductive approach rather than the deductive approach.
Next, re-examine the claim of the conclusion: If it is an empirical generalization, then challenge it by demanding the required evidence for many, most or all claim in the premises set. If the required evidence for the generalization was not offered in the premise set, then reject the argument for having committed
Another example that was given is sweeping generalizations (based on one experience and generalized to a whole group). For example in my experience my kids are always being real quiet when they are in to something they are not supposed to be in, so when they are being really quit I assume that they are in to something. It 's not, always the case though there has been quite a few times that they got really quiet and I went and checked on them and they were just playing and being good.
According to Alina Bradford, deductive or inductive reasoning can be used to reach a logical true conclusion. The approach to reasoning that will be more useful in my research argument is deductive reasoning. That will help to start out with a general statement, or hypothesis, and analyze the possibilities to reach a specific, logical conclusion, according to California State University. "In deductive reasoning, we plan to make a prediction of its consequences. That is, we predict what the observations should be if the theory were correct. We make the conclusion from the general to the specific the observation
observations as the basis of a general conclusion, you are said to be making an