London Heathrow Airport

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London Heathrow Airport. London’s Heathrow is one of the world’s busiest airports. It is used by over 90 airlines flying to 170 destinations worldwide. The airport has five passenger terminals and a cargo terminal. In the 1950s, Heathrow had six runways, now it has just two parallel runways running east-west. Heathrow has witnessed strong growth over recent decades, currently handling 68 million passengers and 477,000 flights a year compared to around 48 million passengers and 427,000 flights a year in 1996. In the absence of any increase in runway capacity, this growth has resulted in Heathrow’s runways operating at around 99% capacity compared to its main European competitors which operate at around 75% capacity, leading to increased…show more content…
Technological improvements are vital to improving fuel efficiency and reducing CO2 emissions. There have already been significant changes over the last decades in the efficiency of aircraft, which are today 70 per cent more efficient than the first commercial jets. The cost of aviation fuel has provided a strong incentive to operators and manufacturers to increase efficiency. This, together with a need to meet internationally agreed aircraft standards related to emissions and noise, has resulted in British aerospace companies investing a significant percentage of their annual research and development budgets on environmental technologies. The next-generation of aircraft, including the Boeing 787 Dreamliner, Airbus A350 and Bombardier C Series, are 20% more fuel efficient per passenger kilometer than current generation aircraft. This is primarily achieved through more fuel-efficient engines and lighter airframes and supporting structures made of composite materials but is also achieved through more aerodynamic shapes, winglets, a "one-piece" fuselage and more advanced computer systems for optimizing routes and loading of the aircraft. Route optimization is another way to reduce CO2 emissions. Currently, air traffic corridors that aircraft are forced to follow place unnecessary detours on an aircraft's route forcing higher fuel burn and an increase in emissions. An improved Air Traffic Management System with more direct routes and optimized cruising
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