Governor Henry Hastings Sibley is a memorable figure in Minnesota history, but one that is laced with controversy and suspicion. These controversies extend from his early career in fur trading to his leadership of Minnesota’s militia in the Great Sioux Uprising of 1862. The criticism of Governor Sibley was mainly because of his hesitation to engage with the Indians and his constant complaints to territorial governor Alexander Ramsey about lack of men and supplies, but is simply not justified when the full scope of his problems are understood.
In order to best rectify the unrest, St. Clair called a meeting with the Wyandot, Chippewa, Delaware, Ottawa, Sauk, and Potawatomi natives. At this meeting the tribes requested that they be given the rights to the land north of the Ohio River. St. Clair did not agree to this request and instead re-designated to them an area of land that was already agreed upon in a previous treaty. The Treaty of Fort Harmar would have had more success if it had included all of the tribes that had been residing on the land being negotiated. The United States government had originally said that they would keep good faith in it’s dealings
However, the Metis had never been consulted by either Hudson’s Bay Company or the Canadian government during the period of negotiations. The Canadian government ignored the resentment from the Metis by sending surveyors to the Red River Valley. The Surveyors treated the Metis quite badly, even caused physical abuses. The Metis needed someone who understood the Canadian law and willing to help them in defending their rights. They chose Louis Riel as their leader. When Riel knew how the surveyors treated his people, he and some followers quickly reacted to the threat posed by the Canadian government. Riel formed an organization called the Comite National des Metis to defend his people. After Riel setup this organization, they took another action to protect their rights. They blocked William McDougall from entering Red River without any violent incidents in order to allow negotiations with the Canadian government. Then, Riel organized a provisional government to ensure law and order in the area until an elected assembly was created since Metis were not opposed to becoming part of Canada. Moreover, they had sworn allegiance to the Queen to show their loyalty. Riel, as a patriote had shown his loyalty and care to Canada. As a patriote, Riel rather sees Red River area becomes part of Canada, instead of the United States. Throughout the years, the Canadian government had denied the Metis their rights to decide their own fate. Decisions were made without
Soon after the passing of Constitution Act of 1867, there were threats of United States expanding north. This marked the beginning of the territorial race between United States and Canada, which required urgent western expansion. British Columbia joined the Confederation in 1871 after the promise of transcontinental railway which added to urgency of western expansion. The prime minister of Canada, John A. McDonald wanted to connect the east and the west of Canada in order to occupy the west. McDonald needed to increase the population in the western Canada, which meant that large amount of farmland were needed and transcontinental railways had to be laid. This
This was of a British North America that stretched from Atlantic to Pacific, from the U.S. boarder to the Arctic hinterland. Britain not only rules the Colonies of Canada, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Newfoundland, Vancouver Island, and British Columbia, but it also asserted it's authority over all of the lands in the interior that were administered by the Hudson Bay Company. An evolutionary process which could bring all of these lands together under one Federal Government would create a country larger than the United States and with the best chances to stand up to U.S., Spanish and Russian encroachment upon British North America.
He formed the province of Manitoba. Without the recent rebellions and uprisings, would Manitoba be what it is today? On December 8, 1869, the Provisional government was set up by the Métis. With this already in hand, the government was able to write the Métis Bill of Rights, a list of what the Red River Colony desired to join confederation. Finally, on July 15, 1870, the
England’s manipulation of control over natural resources reinforced many colonist’s ideas of engaging in rebellious actions. In document E, “John Andrews letter”, it states, “...nothing will save us but an entire stopping of trade… they [the British Parliament]... are to make the town a desolate wilderness…”. John Andrew’s letter shows how the British Parliament were buying natural resources so cheaply that the merchants and colonists Parliament were buying from could barely afford to live, hence making the town a desolate wilderness. Due to the unruly control of trade, patriotic colonists saw only one option, to rebel and revolt. If the colonists had no
Riel was determined to protect the rights of everyone in the settlement. When the Canadian Party was armed and prepared to attack, he imprisoned them by force. The belligerent Thomas Scott was executed by a majority vote. Then Riel decided to negotiate with the Canadian government, which at first refused to recognize him. Undaunted, the provisional government drafted a proposal for the creation of the province of Manitoba. Unfortunately, the leader of the Canadian Party escaped and reached Ottawa first, spreading prejudicial news of the execution and creating outrage. The delegates from Red River had a hard time getting recognition from Macdonald's government, but eventually their case was heard and agreed upon. The Manitoba Act was created granting land rights, as well as making two official languages and education systems. Overall, the Red River Rebellion was a success, but they could've used more peaceful means when dealing with the Canadian Party, especially since they didn't act beforehand. The Red River Rebellion did not end all of the Metis problems though.
Louis Riel helped set up the Metis National Committee. Later then on November 2, 1869, they seized Upper Fort Garry, which allows them to gain dominance, and negotiate from a position of military strength. On November 16, the Provisional Government was set up. Their government’s goal was to maintain order in the colony during the transition period and to determine the future of union with Canada. The provisional government decided to make a Metis Bill of Rights. In the summer of 1869, the surveyors and William McDougall began dividing the Metis land, without letting them know. Also, Prime Minister Macdonald had sent McDougall instructions not to officially take over Rupert’s Land. To summarize, Mr. Riel was only protecting the Metis
Being a Baptist preacher, Tommy Douglas was a religious man. His religion ruled many choices in his early life. Douglas would spend every Sunday in the Weyburn church preaching the gospel, and on the weekdays, he would do what he could to help the suffering of poor. As at the time, the great economic depression had it’s grip on Saskatchewan. Furthermore, Tommy Douglas was also a pragmatist. Instead of thinking on the ideals, he thought practically. He was a calculating man. Many people despised his views, not his religious views, but his political ones. As a member of the Cooperative Commonwealth Foundation and later the New Democratic Party, he was a social-democrat or “socialist”. A lot of citizens thought the government would fall under
Born on the 21st of May, 1930, Malcolm Fraser was born in Toorak, Victoria. He was taught in the Melbourne Grammar School, from 1943 to 1948, then was taught in Oxford University, located in London, from 1949. Graduating from Oxford University in 1952, Malcolm Fraser took his career path to becoming a cultivator. He married Tamara Beggs on the 9th of December 1956 and Tamara’s named was changed to Tamie Fraser. They had four children whose names were Mark, born in 1958, Angela, born in 1959, Hugh, born in 1963 and Phoebe, born in 1966. Around the same year as Phoebe was born, Malcolm Fraser was declared the Australian Army Minister, from the 26th of January 1966 to the 28th of February 1983. Being the Australian Army Minister, Malcolm Fraser had argued about the controversial Vietnam War debate. It was about the needs of sending young Australian men, who were under 20 years old were sent to Vietnam.
Douglas was born in Brandon, Vermont in 1813, and raised in New England (Capers, 1959, pg 5). His family could not afford for him to attend law school in New England, so he went to Illinois, where anyone could practice law, even without prior schooling (Capers, 1959, pg 8). Eventually, he came a Senator of Illinois, on the Senate Committee on Territories (Vanderford, 2009). When his first wife died, he toured Europe to cope with her death. When he returned home to Illinois, he began to speculate the land, and eventually his profits came from Chicago real estate (Capers, 1959, pg 76). In the 1850’s, the states of the Northwest began to demand money from the Federal government for internal improvements. Douglas used his political influence to help campaign for expansion in the west. A transcontinental railroad was planned to be constructed to help connect the United States. Since a central route had not been placed for the railroad yet, Douglas campaigned for the railroad to have a central route stop in Chicago (Capers, 1959, pg 90). This is an example of Douglas’ selfishness because he had stock invested in real estate in Chicago, and if the railroad was built going through Chicago, Illinois, then Douglas would benefit financially. Douglas then pushed to organize the Nebraska territory, so the railroad could reach from Chicago to places out on the Pacific coast. The northerners favored the railroad going through this unorganized Indian territory to link Chicago to the Pacific (Myers, 2010). The people of the south opposed this because they reminded them of the Indians that had been relocated by the Indian Removal Act (Capers, 1959, pg 92). When the Indian Removal Act was passed, Indians who primarily resided in the southeast were relocated onto reservations west of the Mississippi, which happened to be in the Nebraska territory. Douglas saw to resolve this issue by drafting the Kansas
In the mid-1850s, Métis petitioned the Imperial Government in London through Red River-born lawyer Alexander Kennedy Isbister to limit the Council of Assiniboia’s power. On the ground, the Council rarely commanded enough of a constabulary to compel Métis to follow its laws, so the Council was often forced to compromise with the community to ensure the enforcement of its laws. Other events overshadowed Métis-Company disputes in the 1860s: the intensifying eastern interest in developing the West and Confederation in 1867. In 1869 the Dominion of Canada and the Hudson Bay Company reached an agreement for the transfer of Rupert's Land to the Canadian government. Among Métis, however, questions arose on how the Company had gained ownership of the Northwest, when a multitude of “natives of the