Lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in the world, according to the World Health Organisation. In the UK, it 's the second most-frequently occurring cancer among men (after prostate cancer), accounting for 1 in 7 new cases, and the third most-frequently diagnosed cancer in women (after breast and bowel cancer) accounting for about 1 in 9 new cases. However, numbers have dropped considerably in recent times, by about 16% in the last decade alone.
What are lung cancers? Lung cancers are the abnormal cells which grow in uncontrolled manner in one or both lungs. They do not function as normal lung cells and do not develop into healthy lung tissue. The abnormal cells can grow, form tumours and interfere with the normal functions of the lung (Lungcancer.org, 2015). Lung cancers can be divided into two major types, namely non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancers (SCLC). NSCLC can be further classified into three main subtypes, namely adenocarcinoma, squamous-cell carcinoma and large-cell carcinoma (Longo & Harrison, 2012). Lung cancers can be diagnosed by chest X-ray, computerised tomography (CT) scan, positron emission tomography-computerised tomography (PET-CT) scan, bronchoscopy and biopsy (Nhs.uk, 2015). Unfortunately, lung cancers are often diagnosed at the later stages. This is due to the unrecognisable symptoms and warning signs at the earlier stages. NSCLC are often diagnosed at stage IV which accounts for 30-40% of cases whereas 60% of SCLC is diagnosed at stage IV. Lung cancer usually originates from the cells lining the bronchi, bronchioles and alveoli. Carcinogens especially tobacco smoke will alter the gene expression of the normal human lung cells, resulting in cell mutation. The proto-oncogenes will be converted to mutated form, oncogenes. Mutation leads to the decreased expression of the tumour suppressor genes. This results in uncontrolled cell proliferation, cell
Lung Cancer, like any other type of cancer, is the uncontrollable growth of cells in the lung tissue. The main causes that contribute to lung cancer include inhaling carcinogens (basically, smoking), exposure to ionizing radiation, viral infections and even air pollution. These factors basically damage the tissues lining the bronchi in the lung, leading the cancer to develop further (Vaporciyan & Nesbitt JC, 2000). Primary lung cancers that develop in the epithelial tissues of the lung are known as carcinomas and claim the top spot in terms of leading cancer-related death causes. As of 2004, lung cancer
Preventative Measures: The main way to avoid having lung cancer is not to smoke and to avoid taking in second hand smoke, but also stay away from radon gas and asbestos. Certain types of mining and farming can cause exposure to harmful asbestos and radon. It is best to stay away from these kinds of fumes, dust and other dangerous chemicals. A certain nutrient called phytoestrogen which is found in legumes, whole grains, soy products and vegetables reduces the risk of developing lung cancer. Coal products,
A common form of cancer that is very popular today is lung cancer. Lung cancer is a very dangerous form that can cause problems in simple body functions. These simple body functions are short breath and general fatigue. Lung cancer is commonly formed from smokers that has been exposed to that activity for numerous years. Lung cancer can also be spread by being exposed to asbestos or other pollutants. This form of cancer has many risk factors to it. These risk factors are high levels of air pollution, arsenic drinking water, and radon gas. Radon gas is a gas that is highly radioactive and is very sensitive to the body. Once radon is exposed to the body, it has a very high respiration rate which initially divide its radioactive cells- causing more significant damage to the body.
Lung Cancer is a disease which consists of uncontrolled cell growth in lung tissues. Lung cancer consists of two types, Non-small cell lung cancer, and small cell lung cancer. (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer. The bronchi are the large air tubes leading from the trachea to the lungs that convey air to and from the lungs, and where most lung cancers begin. The body normally maintains cell growth only
Lung cancer can be caused by multiple factors and many factors can work together to cause someone to have lung cancer. Besides smoking, radon, secondhand smoke, the environment and someone’s occupation can all cause lung cancer. As we already know smoking is the number one cause of lung cancer cases worldwide and over forty-three million people just in the United States smoke cigarettes. There are more than fifty chemicals in tobacco smoke that are ingested each time someone smokes. Some of these chemicals include benzene (which can be found in pesticides and gasoline), Formaldehyde (which preserve dead bodies), pesticides (which are found on lawns and gardens) and Tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (Martin, 2012). When a person inhales the chemicals in cigarettes, they inhale thousands of poisons, toxic metals, and
Squamous Cell Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) occurs in about 30% of all Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer cases. (Khan Academy Medicine, 2012) There are two main features of squamous cell NSCLC that distinguish it from adenocarcinoma and large cell NSCLC. Squamous cells contain keratin within the cell and are connected to each other by desmosomes (Khan Academy Medicine, 2012). Squamous cell NSCLC is most commonly found in male smokers who have a cough, airway obstruction, Hilar-adenopathy, mediastinal widening with chest x-rays, and Hypercalcemia (Harold, J. Bruyere, 2009).
This type of cancer is more common in women. It is also more likely to develop in young smokers. Adenocarcinoma usually grows at a slower rate, and doctors are likely to detect it before it spreads to other organs. The cancerous tissues usually form tumors on the outer parts of the lung. If a physician detects adenocarcinoma tissues in the early stages, the patient is likely to respond to conventional treatments.
Radon is a disease, bringing on radioactive gas. You can't see, smell or taste radon, yet it might be an issue in your home. The Top health spokesperson has cautioned that radon is the second driving reason for lung malignancy in the Assembled States today. In the event that you smoke and your home has high radon levels, you're at high hazard for creating lung growth. Some logical investigations of radon presentation demonstrate that youngsters might be more touchy to radon. This might be because of their higher breath rate and their quickly partitioning cells, which might be more helpless against radiation
It was one thought that lung cancer was strictly caused by lifestyle choices, but over the past years, it has been shown that lifestyle isn’t the thing that can potentially allow one to contract lung cancer. The environment along with tobacco use and genetics can also play a role in contracting lung cancer. In an industrial world, pollution has been a reoccurring problem. With emissions from vehicles and industrial power plants, air pollution and/or smog has been hovering over us. In places like China who are thriving in the industrial world, are being greatly affected by air pollution. According to Brody, “In Asia, lung cancer is alarmingly