Obstacles to critical thinking:
Egocentrism – Inability to see things at others’ points of view. I want you to support me and tell me that I’m right. I don’t want your rational analysis. Just support me no matter what. Adults are more egocentric
Ethnocentrism – Or sociocentrism. My society, my ethnic background, etc.
Stereotyping – Although there is a cognitive compensity to do this.
Fear / Psychological Defensiveness – fear of questioning the beliefs
Dogmatism – This is faith. I can’t prove it but I accept it.
Propaganda – usually distorted information
Resistance to change –
Unquestioned Loyalties –
Blind obedience to authority –
Mindless conformity –
Willed Ignorance –
Demagoguery – Take…show more content… Conclusion Two (main): Jesse will not make it to the National Football League.
o During the exam instead of numbers write full sentences for the standard form diagram.
Linked and Joined Premises: “they work together, they depend each other”. If the first one is irrelevant, the second is. o “Contest winners will go to Florida. Michelle won the contest. She goes to Florida”. None of the facts alone can’t state that Michelle goes to Florida. It’s the joint link between two facts that infers that Michelle goes to Florida.
Two kinds of Reasoning:
1- Non-deductive reasoning (inductive, non-formal) – o Uses ordinary language o Conclusions do not follow necessarily but probably o Arguments are weaker or stronger by degree. Not either right or wrong.
2- Deductive reasoning (formal) – o Form (structure) vs content (language, topic, substance) o Valid logic. Always leads to a necessary conclusion. Either 100% valid or 100% invalid.
Lecture 5 – Formal Deductive Logic
Valid forms of logic:
1, 2, 3 are hypothetical arguments. (Meaning that they involve if, then)
1) Modus Ponens – If P then Q. P = Antecedent Q = Consequent
- If it’s cold (P), I’ll wear a coat (Q). It’s cold (Affirmed the Antecedent), so I’ll wear a coat
- Invalid form of Modus Ponens – If P then Q. Q so P. (Affirming the consequent) o If it’s a chair (P), it has 4 legs. It has 4 legs, so it’s a chair.