Main Concepts Of Proximate Cause

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PROXIMATE CAUSE (PETE)
If the commissioner 's actions caused by his breach of duty are linked to the damages suffered, the plaintiff’s party must also prove proximate cause, the fourth element of negligence. The two key concepts of proximate cause are that the tortfeasor’s conduct was the closest in to proximity to the damages and that there was no superseding causes that could cancel out the tortfeasor’s liability. In determining proximate cause, courts use foreseeability in defining the scope of risk. Given the statistics of an average of 1,750 injuries per year, the commissioner could have foreseen the possibility of injuries to MLB fans (Gail Payne v. Office of the Commissioner of Baseball (MLB), 2015). However, proximate cause can not be proven because there are multiple superseding causes to these injuries that cancel the commissioner 's liability. One superseding cause would be the pitcher throwing a ball in a certain way, combined with the batter’s action of swinging the bat. This forced the ball and/or bat to exit the field of play, injuring the plaintiffs. Another superseding cause is the section the plaintiffs decided to purchase tickets. In this case, tickets purchased in an exposed section along the first base line are more dangerous than those covered by protective netting.

The assumption of risk defense applied because the plaintiffs assume the risk of injury by purchasing the tickets in the unprotected section.

They could have foreseen the
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