Major Depressive Disorder Essay example

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Introduction Major Depressive Disorder defined by DSM-IV-TR (2000) “is characterised by one or more Major Depressive Episodes (i.e., at least 2 weeks of depressed mood or loss of interest accompanied by at least four additional symptoms of depression)”. Major Depressive Disorder affects twice as many women as men and for both genders it is most common in those who are 25-44 years of age (All About Depression.com 2011). In the case of 65 year old Mrs Adele Harper who was diagnosed at age 43, has been suffering with this disorder for many years and has now been admitted to the Acute Psychiatric ward from the Emergency Department after her daughter had found her dishevelled and extremely seated in her home after an attempt to take her own…show more content…
Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that carry messages between neurons and affect behaviour, mood and thought. Two of the neurotransmitters that play a role in depression are norepinephrine and serotonin (Shives 2005). In depression, neurons don’t produce enough neurotransmitters. Shives (2005) states as a result, membrane channels don’t open, nerve messages are not communicated, and areas of the brain affecting emotion may not receive stimulation (Shives 2005). The hormonal system known as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, that regulates the body’s response to stress, is overactive in many people with depression. The hypothalamus increases production of corticotrophin releasing factor when a person’s physical or psychological well-being is threatened (Shives 2005). Elevated levels of corticotrophin releasing factor lean to an increase in hormone secretion by the piturity and adrenal glands which prepares the body for defensive action (Shives 2005). The chronic overactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis may occur following a traumatic experience this may contribute to the onset of depression (Shives 2005). Nursing Health care services are associated with levels of disease prevention, health promotion and illness prevention, diagnosis and treatment, and rehabilitation, health restoration and palliative care (Berman et al. 2010). Nurses develop skills allowing them to treat

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