Major Pesonality Theories and Coping Strategies Summary
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1. Summarize the key elements of the major personality theories (e.g. type and trait theories, psychodynamic theories, humanistic theories, etc.) discussed in the text.
Personality types are distinct pattern of personality characteristics used to assign people to categories (Gerrig 407). One of the elements of this theory is that if a person belongs to one type they cannot belong to any other. When the theory was first established it was believed that people could be grouped into four categories sanguine, phlegmatic, melancholy, and choleric. In the past it was believed that these were determined by fluids within the bodies such as blood, phlegm, black bile, and yellow bile. In today’s theory ones personality or temperament are…show more content… The three are all a part of each individual but are different mental processes within that individual. The id is defined as the storehouse of the fundamental drives, operating irrationally. This portion of one’s personality is where impulse and immediate gratification arise. Freud stated that the id is governed by the pleasure principle (Gerrig 417). The superego is the storehouse of an individual’s values including moral attitudes learned from society (Gerrig 417). Unlike the id, which is driven by impulse, the superego is based on the conscious and responsible thought. This aspect of personality is the moral compass per say. The ego acts like a mediator between the id and the superego. It arbitrates the conflict between the impulses of one and the demands of the other. This mental process is governed by the reality principle, and tries to help determine one’s consequences for choosing certain actions.
3. Explain how IQ is computed. List and describe the theories of intelligence.
The intelligence quotient or IQ is an index derived from standardized tests of intelligence (Gerrig 275). IQ is calculated by taking a person’s mental age, which is received from the results of the tests given, and dividing it by chronological age and then multiplying by 100. The theories of intelligence are psychometric, Sternberg’s triarchic theory, and Gardner’s multiple intelligences and emotional