Making Soap: Base-Catalyzed Hydrolysis of a Triglyceride

1680 Words Nov 9th, 2011 7 Pages
Abstract: The main reason for this experiment is to prepare a simple soap made from vegetable oil. The physical properties will be tested in order to demonstrate the reactions that occur.
The experiment can conclude that the vegetable oil had a primary fatty acid called linoleic acid, which was evident during the saponification reaction. The simple soap did appear to be a good emulsifier because the soap did dissolve in the mixture of mineral oil and water. In hard water the calcium and magnesium did loose their effectiveness and became insoluble in the solution. When magnesium was added to acidic water, the salt was converted to a fatty acid, and was also insoluble.
Background:
The purpose of this experiment is to demonstrate
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The test tube was observed and recorded. 2.) A soap solution was prepared in a small beaker by adding 25 mL of distilled water and a small amount of the soap. The contents were gently warmed in a warm water bath in order to dissolve as much of the soap as possible. 3.) 5 test tubes were prepared and labeled 1-5. 5 mL of the soap solution that was previously prepared, was added to each test tube. 4.) 2 drops of 5% CaCl2 were added to test tube 1. The test tube was observed and the observations were recorded. 5.) 2 drops of 5% MgCl2 were added to test tube 2. The test tube was observed and the observations were recorded. 6.) 2 drops of 5% FeCl3 were added to test tube 3. The test tube was observed and the observations were recorded. 7.) 2 mL of tap water wad added to test tube 4. The test tube was observed and the observations were recorded. 8.) Test tube 5 served as the control because it only contained the soap solution. A drop from test tube 5 was placed onto pH paper in order to test the pH. The pH was recorded.

Data:
Mass of oil and graduated cylinder 74.57 g
Mass of empty graduated cylinder 66.43 g
Mass of soap product (with filter paper) 18.72 g

Physical properties of soap light yellow, slimy and clumpy, appears like apple sauce
Physical properties of soap from another group yellow, soft, porous, and thick

Observations of solubility of Mineral oil:
Distilled water appears
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