Malaria. A Global Health Problem. Jianyi Li. 53071873.

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Malaria
A Global Health Problem
Jianyi Li
53071873
Public Health 1
2017
Dr. Zuzana Bic I. Public Health Problem
Malaria is a tropical disease transmitted through Anopheles mosquitos that carry the Plasmodium parasite. This disease exists as a public health problem because when bitten by an infected mosquito, the Plasmodium parasite can cause serious illness that, if left untreated, may lead to death. This is a health threat that affects approximately 212 million people and leads to the deaths of 429,000 people annually [2]. There are four major kinds of Malaria parasites that affects humans; Plasmodium Falciparum, P.Vivax, P.ovale, and P Malariae [2]. The most dangerous of the four, Plasmodium Falciparum, causes red blood cells to become
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Populations that are more susceptible to this illness includes children, pregnant women, HIV/AIDs patients and those who travel often [1]. These population groups are more prone to infection because they have lower immunity to the disease. Adults who have been exposed to the parasite before may develop naturally acquired immunity, which is why young children who has less exposure are more likely to be infected and to die from the disease [4]. In addition, people who travel often not only have a higher chance of becoming infected due to increased exposure to the parasite, but they may also bring the parasite to countries where Malaria has been eliminated. As a result, mosquitos that bites infected individuals may reproduce and spread the parasite to other people.
Though the number of deaths and rate of infection has decreased significantly within the past few years, with the incidence rate dropping 21% and mortality rate decreasing 29% between 2010 and 2015, Malaria remains a public health threat due to increasing drug resistance [2]. Because the Plasmodium parasite has a very short lifespan and reproduces rapidly, the rate of mutation in the parasite is very high, allowing it to quickly develop resistance to anti-Malarial drugs. One drug that has been used to treat Malaria effectively is Chloroquine. However, Chloroquine resistant Plasmodium

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