The WHO Global Malaria Programme is responsible for evidence-based policy and strategy formulation, technical assistance, capacity building, malaria surveillance, monitoring and evaluation, and coordination of global efforts to fight malaria. WHO is also a co-founder and hosts the Roll Back Malaria partnership, which is the global framework to implement coordinated action against malaria (The World Health Organization Staff, 2010). The CDC participates actively in global malaria efforts through work with the WHO, Roll Back Malaria Partners, UNICEF, and more in the fight to keep the epidemic at bay (Global Health - Division of Parasitic Diseases , 2010).
Background - Malaria is a water borne disease. It is spread by a parasite-carrying mosquito. It kills many people and reduces a country 's capacity to develop. There are different strategies to combat malaria. Around half the population is at risk of malaria and this disease is active in 106 counties across Africa, Asian and the Americas (see source 3). the global annual mortality from malaria is between 1.5 - 3 million deaths, or between 4000 and 8000 each day. Developing countries are most vulnerable to Malaria and as shown on source 2 Malaria has been spread across many various other countries including in Europe, but these countries have eradicated Malaria.
Moreover, when examining the intersection between the medical impacts of malaria on the human and the social consequences, a vicious cycle is revealed in which the body, the community, and the economy are all similarly impacted by the presence of malaria in a
As a social worker, one could aim to connect health care facilities in Zambia, where 1 in 5 children are dying from malaria, to Doctors without Borders, a resource sharing the privileges of modern medicine with participating countries (Harrison, et al., 2005). The doctors participating could provide the local doctors with new information on healthcare and possible prevention methods for contracting malaria including updated vaccinations and treatment. This would connect those without access to such resources to good healthcare and promote social justice by potentially decreasing the child mortality rate of children with
Within Afghanistan, the major sources of treatment for Malaria can be accessed in hospitals, through aid stations which include volunteer workers which enter the boarder from around the world and the world famous Human rights organisation United Nation. The first major strategy used to combat Malaria is the use of vector control, where the numbers of mosquitos or mosquito bites are reduced. Because of the low socio-economic state of
Ninety percent of all malaria deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa, which is the location and region of where this issue affects. In a concentrated effort to treat malaria since 2000, 700 million cases have been stopped in Africa, bringing the number of cases down by almost fifty percent. This pleasant news is the result of human interaction. Since the introduction of bed nets, malaria death rates have dropped by sixty percent, saving six million lives. All this progress has to be credited to the scientists who got notified by their respective countries when deaths constantly occur in a certain area through communication. Shortly after getting notified, the researchers travel to sub-Saharan Africa, which requires movement, to analyze the situation
Malaria can be treated using both vaccines and other prescription drugs. In developed countries this has effectively negated Malaria as a public health threat. For instance, in the United States there are only 1500 cases of malaria per year, all of which are linked to travel to tropical regions in Africa and South America. Unfortunately, less developed regions do not have the proper infrastructure to produce, store or distribute these drugs. Third-world efforts are focused on prevention rather than treatment. The majority of Malaria funding is allocated to two different prevention concepts, Insecticide Treated Nets (ITN’s) and Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS). Nets are made of finely woven fabrics which provide a physical barrier between infected mosquitoes and humans. Mosquitoes which land on the nets absorb insecticide which kills them. Nets can be costly, and have a high rate of misuse, as many villagers use them to fish. The alternative to ITN’s is the practice of Indoor Residual Spraying of insecticides. This is very effective in sprayed areas, but is stationary and poisonous to the
It has been estimated that 609 million people in Africa are at risk of having malaria (Mabaso et al 2007, p. 35). Almost 34% of the populations in Zambia live in endemic risk areas, while 48% of the populations are in epidemic risk (Guerra et al., 2008, p.54; WHO
Imagine walking into a foreign country in hopes to help eradicate malaria, but when you speak to the natives they talk about it as if it’s the common cold. From our western knowledge, you hear malaria and associate it with pain and suffering. For eastern cultures it’s a part of their daily reality that they’ve come to accept, but this is a major drawback in the eradication of malaria. This misconception due to lack of education and a democracy in underdeveloped countries harms global health efforts to eradicate malaria. There are four most common types of malaria, two that are survivable and one that is deadly. In undeveloped countries, it is seen that those who survive malaria are stronger or lucky, and those who die were weaker. This
Malaria claims more lives than any other communicable disease except tuberculosis. Over 200 million cases worldwide are reported each year. According to the World Health Organization Research, Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by the parasite plasmodium (WHO, 2011). It is a life-threatening disease transmitted through the bite of an infected Anopheles mosquito. Unfortunately, an estimated death toll of 1 million African children is reported. Thus this paper will aim to further define this condition while describing clinical manifestations and preventive
von Seidlein L et al. discusses the changes in malaria incidence recorded at a single site in Africa over 25 years, along with future implications for disease prevention.
Mosquitoes pass malaria to humans through their salivary glands. Once the parasites have entered the blood stream, they go to the liver. In the liver they mature and undergo reproduction, forming merozoites. These merozoites enter the blood stream and inject themselves into red blood cells. Once inside the blood cells, they reproduce rapidly and within forty-eight to seventy-two hours, the blood cell bursts, releasing hemoglobin into the blood stream. It is the destruction of these blood cells and the hemoglobin released into the blood stream that actually causes most of the symptoms.
About 3.3 billion people, that is about half of the world’s population are at risk of contracting malaria (figure 1). Every year there are 250 million cases of malaria, and nearly 1 million deaths. That amounts to 2,732 deaths per day. Out of those million people that die every year, 800,000 of them are African children under the age of 5. To control malaria three actions need to be taken: insecticides need to be used to decrease the vector population, people have to be educated as to how to prevent the vector from reproducing, and anti-malarial drugs need to be distributed. To understand the vector and what the vector is, scientists had to first discover what the parasite was and how it worked. It was not until the year 1880 that French Physician Charles Laveran discovered that Malaria was caused by a protozoan in the genus Plasmodium (Malaria, 2013)
“Malaria contributes to increased maternal morbidity and mortality.” (MALARIA A MAJOR CAUSE OF CHILD DEATH AND POVERTY IN AFRICA, UNICEF 2004) Malaria in India is endemic. “India contributes 77% of the total malaria in Southeast Asia.” (Kumar et al. 2007)
This article is important as it assesses the progress made in the 3 years from 2010 -2014 in malaria elimination in south Africa, while highlighting challenges and suggesting priorities for moving the malaria program towards elimination. Although South Africa has made progress since adopting an elimination agenda, there are number of challenges that have been identified in the efforts toward malaria elimination. Over the review period annual spray coverage did not reach the 90 % coverage of recommended target, with information gaps identified in parasite prevalence, artemether‑lumefantrine therapeutic utilization, asymptomatic/sub‑patent carriage, drug efficacy, vector distribution and insecticide resistance. The author recommends that the Cross‑border initiatives with neighboring countries should be established since malaria importation poses a real threat to the country’s elimination. provincial programs are adequately funded and resourced to effectively conduct the targeted elimination activities, informed by current vector/parasite distribution and resistance data. More sensitive methods to detect sub‑patent infections, primaquine as a transmission‑blocking drug, and alternative vector control methods need to be investigated. Knowledge gaps among malaria health workers and affected communities should be