Malaria, Why Is It Not Eradicated?

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15052853 Hayato Kakinuma Despite a hundred years of war with malaria, why is it not eradicated? Introduction Malaria has been in existence for thousands of years. Many historical records show that it has affected human civilization greatly by plaguing and causing mass death. The earliest record can be traced back to 2700 BC in China (Cox, 2002). It has been associated with swamps and insects for hundreds of years but it was often believed to be the air from swamps causing the plague. The term malaria comes from two Italian words ‘mala’ and ‘aria’ which literally mean ‘bad air’. Humanity did not know the true nature of the disease until in 1894 when a Scottish physician, Sir Ronald Ross, discovered that it was actually the parasite in…show more content…
Once in the blood stream, the parasite will aim towards the liver. This stage is undetectable to the immune system as the sporozoite coats itself with protein similar to our own cells. It will asexually reproduce several times producing the second stage, merozoites and then leave the liver and enter the blood stream to infect the red blood cells. The parasite will again reproduce asexually and later on cause the red blood cells to burst to release the parasite. When the parasite matures, it will become capable of reproducing sexually and transform into female and male gametocytes. When a human host is again bitten by the mosquito vector, the parasites will then infect the mosquito and further develop into fully matured gametes. These gametes will reproduce sexually inside the mosquito guts to produce the haploid sporozoites, and then travel to the vector’s salivary gland to infect another human host (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, 2012). According to WHO (2015), there have been 214 million cases of malaria reported in 2015. This is 30% decrease between 2010 and 2015, and there has been a 60% decrease in mortality with the help of modern medicine and preventive measures. The Malaria situation is different in different parts of the world, and the epidemiology map is shifting, but currently sub-Saharan countries are the most affected. WHO (2012) reported that in 2013, there were 584,000 reported deaths and 528,000 were from Africa alone and 84% of
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