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Malcolm Knowles Andragogy Essay

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Malcolm S. Knowles:
Adult learning had no distinction from pedagogy in the United States until Malcolm S. Knowles introduced his controversial theory of andragogy. Knowles was an American educator at North Carolina State University (Knowles, Holten III, & Swanson, 2015). Andragogy is defined as a set of principles of adult learning that in turn enables those designing and conducting adult learning to build more effective learning process. Knowles determined there are 4 assumptions about characteristics of adult learners in 1980 and added a 5th assumption in 1984. His assumptions resulted into the 4 principles of andragogy.
My thoughts on how humans learn:
I believe learning is a natural skill that can be enhanced once a person recognizes their
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For myself, I can remember things I say aloud better than just reading it. I can also write the material and have better recall than just reading the material. I have also retained more information by associating it with personal, real events that have happened in my life. I have found that many times if I doubt myself, I talk myself into failure; therefore, it greatly benefits me to reassure myself that I can do it.
Andragogy in Practice as a holistic learning model:
Based on the 4 principles of andragogy, there is a need to explain the reasons that specific things are being taught, instruction should be task oriented instead of promoting memorization, instructions should take into account the wide variety of different backgrounds of learners, and since adult learners are self-directed, instruction should allow learner to discover knowledge for themselves without depending on others (Pappas, 2013). A recently developed holistic theory provides an integrative framework to examine some of the contemporary adult learning theories (Yang, 2004). Bibliography
Knowles, M. S., Holten III, E. F., & Swanson, R. A. (2015). The Adult Learner: the definitive classic in adult education and human resource development. New York:
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