In the process of being forced to migrate from their country of origin and resettle in a totally different country, refugees and asylum seekers face a multitude of challenges. Some will have spent many years in refugee camps or have spent time in detention Often they have had little or no healthcare access, either in their country of origin or in the country they subsequently fled to, an experience shown to have negative health outcomes (Pottie K, Janakiram P, Topp P, McCarthy A. , 2007 & Pieper HO, Clerkin P, MacFarlane A. , 2011). In these camps they may have experienced overcrowding, violence, poor nutrition and hygiene leading to infectious disease and poor medical care (NSW Refugee Health Service, 2002). If they have spent long periods in these camps, they may have developed depression, anxiety or passivity (Silove D, Steel Z, 1998).
Undernutrition is an outcome of insufficient quantity and quality of food and frequent episodes of infectious diseases.
For most us Americans, knowing when we’re going to eat next is something we very rarely think of, and when we do think about being hungry we still know where our food is coming from. Three big meals a day, and a few snacks in between, is how most of us live. It’s hard for us to imagine what its like for those who go days eating very little or nothing at all. But unfortunately that’s how it is for most of the world and surprisingly it happens in the United Sates as well. There are many reasons malnutrition can happen, and it happens to every age group. Even though there are many ways to treat it, in the
In the article, Daynes discusses the health impacts that the refugees may encounter when making the journey from the Middle East to Europe. Daynes brings up the increase in psychological health issues that the refugees may go through as they face traumatic experiences. She brings up the issues of pregnancies and how dangerous the route becomes as they face an increased risk of premature delivery. Daynes discusses the health impacts of the refugee camps as well and how the poor living conditions may cause serious harm to the refugees. Daynes argues the dangers of the journey and how everyone, regardless if they are migrants, should have appropriate medical
Neonatal and perinatal health outcomes will influence the overall future health of an individual. Indeed, many illnesses and disorders originate from prenatal and early infancy abnormal developments. Preterm-birth and low-birth weight have been positively correlated with adverse health outcomes ranging from childhood to the adult life of an individual. Thus, it is essential for public health professionals to understand not only the biological factors influencing the birth timing and weight, but also the psychosocial dynamics which may impact those outcomes. For years, many scientists have observed what is called the ‘migrant paradox’. The migrant paradox designates a situation where first generation immigrants who are almost
A significant focus of this discourse has been the impact of these policies on the health of asylum seekers and refugees. In 2009, Johnston (2) conducted a review of empirical research examining
Many people worldwide are susceptible to malnutrition due to food insecurity, instability, and inaccessibility. Malnutrition, or the failure to meet daily nutritional requirements, affects more than one-third of the child population in the world; also nearly 30% of the population of all ages in the developing world, considering malnutrition (commonly under nutrition) severely damaging. Malnutrition is an effect of lack of hygiene, food instability, political inconsistency, weak health care, economic fluctuation, and any other demeaning factors at the communal degree (Kumar). Malnutrition spikes a growth stunt in most children who are affected by it. It causes slowed growth, lack of development, and low immunity. Malnutrition goes hand in hand with poverty all around the world: the fact that families are living off of less than somewhere between one dollar to three means that they are more likely to meet the daily nutritional requirements (calories, vitamins, etc). In sub-Saharan Africa, malnutrition can be passed down by generation, especially if young girls end up being mothers to dangerously underweight babies that—even though they are considered alive—fail to thrive. Malnutrition can often lead to cases of micronutrient deficiency. For example, if a person
Malnutrition is an epidemic we must face everyday whether it is here in the U.S. or halfway across the world in India. Children all over the world are suffering these effects which can be long term whether they or their parents realize it. Malnutrition effects performance, grades, activity, and cognition in more ways than ever thought possible. In conclusion, malnutrition in children has it effects
In many cases, hunger starts during pregnancy, before the child is even born. This inherited malnutrition increases the child’s risk for developing illnesses and learning problems when he or she starts school. Prenatal malnutrition can result in premature birth, low birth weight, smaller head size and lower brain weight. (American Psychological Association, 2015)
It's important to know that malnutrition as it is, can land you in the hospital if you're not careful enough to know when to put your nutrition into check. It almost did so to me, but I figured it out early enough and that's the major reason I thought of
Chronic under nutrition grows in the period between birth and two years of age and cannot be reversed afterwards. This early growth deficit increases newborn and child death and drops the cognitive function of those who continue to live. This disorderdeters efforts to realize the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 1,2,3,4,5 and 6. In 2004, merely in terms of output loss, the cost of not averting the above disorder was valued at USD 110 million per annum.
Freedom from hunger and malnutrition is a basic human right and their alleviation is a fundamental prerequisite for human and national development. WHO has traditionally focused on the vast magnitude of the many forms of nutritional deficiency, along with their associated mortality and morbidity in infants, young children and mothers. However, the world is also seeing a dramatic increase in other forms of malnutrition characterized by obesity and the long-term implications of unbalanced dietary and lifestyle practices that result in chronic disease such as cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes.
Each and every individual has fundamental right to be free from hunger and under nutrition. For the accomplishment of this right we need to have equitable and sustainable food system. Moreover we also need to have other entitlements such as livelihood security in terms of right to work, land reform and social security. And every state has the responsibility to take care of these rights of its citizens or it can be said that to ensure these entitlements must be the primary responsibility of the state. To meet these entitlements government introduced various aspects of the right to food such as “National Employment Guarantee Act”, “Universal Mid-Day Meals in primary schools”, Universalization of the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) for children under the age of six”, effective implementation of the of all nutrition- related schemes”, “revival and universalization of the public distribution system”, to arrange social security for those who are not able to work”, equitable land rights and forests rights”. Indian parliament has introduced the cooked Mid-Day meals in all primary schools following a Supreme Court order of April 2004. To take this further on 9th April 2002 national “day of action on Mid-Day meals” was celebrated. This event was instrumental in persuading several state governments to initiate cooked mid-day meals in primary schools.
Malnutrition is a serious condition in which the body does not get the right balance of nutrients and calories needed to sustain good health and development. It has two sides - undernutrition and obesity/overweight. Undernutrition arises mainly as a result of inadequate or unbalanced diets, but is also caused by poor nutrient absorption or a loss of nutrients due to illness (2000, Smith LC and Haddad L). Undernutrition manifests in stunting, underweight, wasting and micronutrient deficiencies. Micronutrients refer to vitamins and minerals. In this paper the term malnutrition refers to undernutrition.