Malnutrition Increases Morbidity and Mortality Essay

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Malnutrition is defined as state of being poorly nourished or the imbalance between intake and requirement that changes metabolism, loss of body mass, and impaired function.1 Malnutrition is a common problem among patients with severe or chronic diseases. The main cause of malnutrition in developed countries is disease. Either acute or chronic disorder can aggravate malnutrition in many ways such as change in metabolism due to infection or inflammation, response to trauma, absorption, or appetite. Other than pathological causes for malnutrition, socioeconomic factors such as isolation and low income may contribute more in developing malnutrition. Dementia, anorexia, immobilization, and poor dentition are factors that can worsen the case in elderly population.

Malnutrition increases morbidity, mortality, complication rates, and the length of stay in hospitals.2 The prevalence rate of hospital malnutrition ranges between 20% to 60% and among outpatient is 7% to 16%. Disease-related malnutrition has become an economical issue. In Europe, it costs up to $125 billion every year.

Nutrition screening is recommended to all patients who are admitted in the hospital.3 There are various nutrition screening tools available to assess nutritional risk such as the Mini Nutritional Nutritional Assessment (MNA), Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST), Nutritional Risk Index (NRI), and the Nutritional Risk Score (NRS-2002), which helps in…

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