Mammalian Spinal Cord Injury Case Study

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From a statistical information from the World Health Organization (WHO), patients who suffer from spinal cord injury (SCI) are around 250,000-500,000 people every year \cite{who2013}. An incidence of SCI mostly occurs from the unpreventable cause such as falls, traffic accidents, sports, and violence. SCI sufferers in males are higher than females at least 2 times. However, the major cause of SCI is the accidents \cite{who2013}. Consequently, we cannot certainly prevent or control numbers of SCI patients. SCI is the injury of the nervous system which can lead to permanent neurological deficits. A disruption of impulse conduction is a cause of non-functional body depending upon an injured level. Classification of SCI consists of 2 phases that are an acute phase and chronic phase …show more content…

Thereby, many researchers attempt to enhance the function of locomotor and balance. The fine model of mammalian spinal cord for observing SCI case study normally are rodents because their genetic and biological characteristics nearly resemble humans \cite{remy2010}. Moreover, the advantages of the rat model are easy to manage, accessibility, and low-cost \cite{silva2014}. However, cats and primates are also studied for being SCI model because the overall organization of their spinal cord structure is similar to the human. The reasons that the non-human primates are not widely observed are ethics and high-cost \cite{silva2014}. The central pattern generation (CPG) in mammals which is the movement organization generating from the group of neurons located in the spinal cord is observed in rats and cats for a further understanding about CPG. The CPG can provide the movement when all phasic sensory signals associated with limb motion absents, even some sensory inputs are abnormal function \cite{rossignol2009}. Nonetheless, the exact site of mammal's CPG in the lumbosacral spinal cord is still unknown

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