Management As A Science Or An Art

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INTRODUCTION Management has been in practice for thousands of years. The systematic study of management in twentieth century is comparatively new. In the words of Weihrich and Koontz (1993: 4) management can be defined as a process in which the organizational goals can be achieved through designing an environment where individuals works together in groups efficiently. The word Management is being derived from the Latin term which is used for “handling or controlling a horse”, which later extended from controlling a horse to controlling a weapon, boats, people (Hendry, 2013, p.1). There have been debates on management to substantiate it as a science or an art. Management can be seen as a science as the managerial skills of an employee can be seen in quantifiable and mathematical form. On the other hand, management can be seen as an art because the characteristics of an employee can be seen through his work. Thus, we can conclude that management is the combination of both science and as well as art. (Ahmad). FUNCTIONS OF MANAGERS There are four types of management techniques namely planning, organizing, leading and controlling which helps managers to accomplish their specific goals. Planning is a function that helps managers to set their goals and actions based on techniques plan or logic for future performance of organizations. The performance of an organization totally depends on its planning techniques and resources used to accomplish the given task. Organizing deals with
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