Management Research According to Badewi (2013), there are two approaches for conducting a

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Management Research

According to Badewi (2013), there are two approaches for conducting a research, the first is filling knowledge gap, and the second is to solve a problem, which is usually conducted by using applied science. Researchers who highly depend on problem solving approaches are mainly considered as interpreters. For filling knowledge gap model, scholars and academics use theoretical perspectives from previous researches and studies in order to find knowledge gap that will allow them to develop a new research area, they are mostly known as positivists. According to the author, the most logical way is to use a combination between the two approaches since solving a problem without referring to literature review could not be
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After the Ontology, we should think about Epistemology which is the theory of getting the knowledge. There are different views of epistemology. For example, if we do not have a single reality then we should interpret the reality; in this regard the epistemology is interpreted.

What is Epistemology, and how is it related to knowledge?

According to Rayner (2011, p. 258), epistemological structures reflects academic values, beliefs and idea of knowledge. They are used by researchers to interpret and re-interpret domain discipline. Knowledge acquisition can be sourced through perception, introspection, reason, testimony and memory (Steup, 2005). Old school researchers think of epistemology as the science of testing hypothesis. This traditional way proposes that researchers known as empiricist should first collect information then propose hypothesis, and then test the hypothesis objectively using statistical data. However, epistemology is about different ways of inquiring into the nature of the physical and the social worlds. And the result of the debates between the different led to the above mentioned views of social science research: positivism and social construction-ism (Easterby-Smith, 2012, p. 22).
In his article “Towards an epistemology of collective action: management research as a responsive and actionable discipline”, Hatchuel (2005, p. 45) argue that in management research, a different type of epistemology should be used known

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