Management School of Thought

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Management School of Thought: During the present century, certain schools of management thought have developed. Each school reflects the problems of the period during which they were popular. Herold Koontz was the first who have attempted to classify the various approaches on the management in the schools of management theory. Based on the writings of some of the scholars and Koontz, the management thoughts, have been classified in the following schools of management theory. a) Management Process School: This school developed in France. Henri Fayol, a Frenchman is considered as the father of this school. Sometimes this school is referred to as “Traditional or Universalist” or Classical school. It regards management as a universal process.…show more content…
Its findings led to the development of a new hypothesis i.e. motivation to work, morale and productivity are related to social relations among the workers and the supervision and not to physical condition of work. The human relation school considers that as managing involves getting things done through people; therefore management studies should be evolved around interpersonal relations. Thus the main emphasis is on the individual and the informal group in the formal organization. The basic concern is to study people as human beings rather than as mere work units. Sociologists and psychologists have been very active in developing this school of thought. i) Human Behavior School: The focus of the human behavior school is on behaviour of the individual, the group and the organization. This theory looks at the human factor as the central theme. It lays greater emphasis on interpersonal relationship, leadership, group dynamics and motivation of personnel. The basic assumption is that in case the management can keep the employees happy, then this will result in the maximum performance. Elton Mayo and group of industrial Psychologist conducted experiments at the Western Electric Hawthorne plant in Chicago. They came to the conclusion that social interaction and psychological factors are important in determining the level of productivity and satisfaction. ii) Social System School: This theory views organization as a system which is
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