Management Theories

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Basic management models and theories associated with motivation and leadership and be able to apply them to practical situations and problems
Management and Change: Basic management models and theories associated with motivation and leadership
This section covers :
· Classical Management Theory[->0]
· Human Relations Theory[->1]
· Neo-Human Relations Theory[->2]
· System Theory[->3]
Classical Management Theory
Here we focus on three well-known early writers on management:

Henri Fayol[->4]
FW Taylor[->5]
Max Weber[->6]

Definition of management: Management takes place within a structured organisational setting with prescribed roles. It is directed towards the achievement of aims and objectives through influencing the efforts of others.
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This was a rigid system where every task became discrete and specialized. It is fair to suggest that this is unlikely to be of value to the NHS with the Modernisation agenda suggesting that we should have a flexible workforce.

Key points about Taylor, who is credited with what we now call 'Taylorism':
· he was in the scientific management school
· his emphases were on efficiency and productivity
· but he ignored many of the human aspects of employment
For the managers, scientific management required them to:
· develop a science for each operation to replace opinion and rule of thumb
· determine accurately from the science the correct time and methods for each job (time and motion studies)
· set up a suitable organisation to take all responsibility from the workers except that of the actual job performance
· select and train the workers (in the manner described above)
· accept that management itself be governed by the science deployed for each operation and surrender its arbitrary powers over the workers, i.e. cooperate with them.
For the workers, scientific management required them to:
· stop worrying about the divisions of the fruits of production between wages and profits.
· share in the prosperity of the firm by working in the correct way and receiving wage increases.
· give up their idea of time wasting and co-operate with the management in developing the science
· accept that

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