Management Theories Essay

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Management Theories

The Classical School of Management Theory

The Classical School is thought to have originated around the year
1900 and dominated management thinking into the 1920s, focusing on the efficiency of the work process. It has three schools of thinking:
Bureaucratic management, which focuses on rules and procedures, hierarchy and clear division of labour; Scientific management, which looks at ‘the best way’ to do a job; and Administrative management, which emphasises the flow of information within the organisation.

Classical management theory is now considered to be an outdated form of management for the principal reason that people and their needs are considered by Classical theorists as secondary to the needs
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4. Remove all responsibility for the work method from the worker and give it to management. The worker is responsible only for the actual job performance.

Scientific management became very popular in the early part of this century as its application was shown to lead to improvements in efficiency and productivity. However, flaws in the theory soon became evident: employees become bored and frustrated as they are relieved of responsibility and jobs became more repetitive; removing the workforce from the design and control of jobs leads to an increasing gulf of knowledge between management and the workforce; and rising education standards and employee aspirations make the belief that management are superior to their employees very dated.

The Human Relations / Behaviourist School

By the 1920s, it was becoming apparent that the major shortcoming with
Classical management theory was its inability to deal with the people who work in organisations. The Human Relations (or Behaviourist)
School emerged in the 1920s and dealt with the human aspects of organisations. Subscribers to the Human Relations school believe that a co-operative work environment and the needs and values of the workers are paramount, which should be encouraged by democratic consultation by those who manage.

The Hawthorne Experiments. Elton Mayo is probably the must
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