Management Theory

14588 Words59 Pages
Chapter two
The Evolution of Management Theory
Learning Objectives
1. Describe how the need to increase organizational efficiency and effectiveness has guided the evolution of management theory. 2. Explain the principle of job specialization and division of labour, and tell why the study of person–task relationships is central to the pursuit of increased efficiency. 3. Identify the principles of administration and organization that underlie effective organizations. 4. Trace the changes that have occurred in theories about how managers should behave in order to motivate and control employees. 5. Explain the contributions of management science to the efficient use of organizational resources. 6. Explain why the study of the external environment
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The next revolution in car production took place not in the United States but in Japan. A change in management thinking occurred there when Ohno Taiichi, a Toyota production engineer, pioneered the development of lean manufacturing in the 1960s after touring the US plants of the Big Three car companies. The management philosophy behind lean manufacturing is to continuously find methods to improve the efficiency of the production process in order to reduce costs, increase quality, and reduce car assembly time. In lean manufacturing, workers work on a moving production line, but they are organized into small teams, each of which is responsible for a particular phase of car assembly, such as installing the car’s transmission or electrical wiring system. Each team member is expected to learn all the tasks of all members of his or her team, and each work group is charged with the responsibility not only to assemble cars but also to continuously find ways to increase quality and reduce costs. By 1970, Japanese managers had applied the new lean production system so efficiently that they were producing higher-quality cars at lower prices than their US counterparts, and by 1980 Japanese companies were dominating the global car market. To compete with the Japanese, managers at the Big Three car makers visited Japan to learn lean production methods. In recent years, Chrysler Canada has been the North American model for speed in automobile production. Chrysler’s Windsor, Ontario

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