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Scientific management is defined by (Robbins et al., 2012) as ‘an approach that involves using scientific methods to define the “one best way” for a job to be done’. Frederick W. Taylor is said to be the forefather of scientific management, during his time many people criticised Taylor and his work, however it is easy to see that many of his approaches are used in contemporary management systems. This essay will provide a review of the article ‘The Ideas of Frederick W. Taylor’, Academy of Management Review (Locke, E., 1982) which discusses the positives and negatives of Taylor’s theory. A further 3 articles will be analysed on the critiquing or support of scientific management and Taylor.
AP/ADMS3530 3.0 Assignment #1 Solution Winter 2010 Instructions: (1) This assignment is to be done individually. You must sign and submit the standard cover page supplied as the last page of this assignment. Before you start, please read the note “Writing Style Required for ADMS3530 Assignments” posted on the course web site. Please stick to the writing guidelines suggested in the note. This assignment is due in the class of the week of February 8, 2010. For Internet section students, the assignment must be uploaded to the Centre for Distance Education: http://www.atkinson.yorku.ca/cde/assignmentupload and identified precisely in accordance with the course outline by Tuesday, February 9, 2010, midnight. This assignment must be handwritten.
The central theme of this essay will deal with the role of Taylorism or scientific management in a specific organization. The primary focus will be to critically discuss how the various methods of scientific management are applicable to the chosen organization, which in this case will be Ford Motors. The essay will describe F.W. Taylor's early work life and techniques of scientific management and its success. It will then go on to discuss the production methods at Ford Motors prior and post the application of the management principles along with their benefits and criticisms.
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Motivation in the workplace is one of the major concerns that managers face when trying to encourage their employees to work harder and do what is expected of them on a day-to-day basis. According to Organizational Behavior by John R. Schermerhorn, James G. Hunt and Richard N. Osborn the definition of motivation is "the individual forces that account for the direction, level, and persistence of a person's effort expended at work." They go on to say that "motivation is a key concern in firms across the globe." Through the years there have been several theories as to what motivates employees to do their best at work. In order to better understand these theories we will apply them to a fictitious organization that has the following
Human Resources is dependent on the success, happiness, and contentment of employees that keep the business on course. Motivation is one of the best ways to push employees forward while making sure everyone is in a comfortable position in their job. Motivational theories just attempt to explain what motivates or makes people act the way that they do. The goal of understanding these theories and their outcomes is to ensure a better performance from each employee, and to give each of those employees the best situation they can have in the workplace. Visionaries such as Abraham Maslow, Frederick Herzberg, and Henry A. Landsberger also brought forward new ways of management and ways to handle internal situations that changed the landscape of human resources as a whole. Motivational theories instituted in the workplace have a commonly positive effect on both employees and management, showing that it is important to strive for proven motivational practices.
Victor Harold Vroom developed the first expectancy theory of work motivation. This theory involves three principles, valence, instrumentality, and expectancy (Vroom, 1964). Valence is the value that is put on the anticipated result; a personal aim would be a paradigm of valence. Instrumentality is the belief that success will lead to the preferred product. Lastly, expectancy is the belief that accomplishment is possible. In comparison, Edwin Locke formulated the goal theory. The methodology behind this is performance related; Locke claims that ‘challenging goals, specific goals, participation and knowledge of results’ (Locke and Latham, 1990) all play a part in producing a higher performance level.
To briefly summarize the theoretical contributions, we must first look at Frederick W. Taylor’s theory of Scientific Management which started in the early 20th century. Taylor’s most significant example of the Scientific Management theory was exercised by Henry Ford with the introduction of mass car production which revolutionized the car industry in America. Ford not only used Taylor’s idea of systematization but expanded on his theory to use machines that would decrease the input of the workers by minimizing discretion with the creation of a conveyor belt allowing cars to come to the worker. Ford’s rationale for this was based on enhancing the efficiency with
During the nineteenth century, the labor force changed with the invention of unaided machinery and by the twentieth century Frederick Winslow Taylor became the leading theorist in Scientific Management Theory. Taylor’s theory created a revolution in the study of management and was the first scientific methods study in field of management science (Khurana, 2009). Scientific management seeks to improve an organization 's efficiency by systematically improving the efficiency of task completion by utilizing scientific, engineering, and mathematical analyses. The goal is to reduce waste, increase the process and methods of production, and create a just distribution of goods (Grimsley, 2014). Scientific management was based around the