Managing Client with Cerebrovascular Disease

3829 Words Sep 6th, 2014 16 Pages
Name And Student Number (Bolded)Course, Semester, Year | SITI ROHAIDA BINTE RAHMAT12B057ZADVANCE DIPLOMA IN NEUROSCIENCE, 2012 |
Managing Client with Cerebrovascular Disease
Introduction
Stroke is a part of a cardiovascular disease that occurs when the supply of blood or oxygen to the brain is disrupted by a blockage in the artery or when there is usually a trauma that causes spontaneous bleeding in the brain (Duncan, Zorowitz & Lambert, 2005).
Bleeding in the brain, is referred to as a haemorrhagic stroke which results from either ruptured blood vessels or due to an abnormal vascular structure such as arterio-venous malformation.
Although stroke can be classified into two different categories (ischemic and haemorrhagic), one
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Pathophysiology - Subdural Haematoma
A subdural haematoma is defined as a collection of blood flow underneath the dura layer but outside of the brain and arachnoid membranes. Subdural haematomas are commonly found around the top and sides of the head, also commonly associated with contusions and intracranial haematomas (Barker, 2008).
As discussed by Barker, an acute subdural haematoma occurs within 48 hours after significant trauma to the brain and often risks mortality due to injury to the brain tissue and mass effects caused by the bleed. As subdural haematoma is the most common type of intracranial haemorrhage, it is usually caused by a mechanism involving a high-speed impact. Based on the patient’s social history, he had picked up boxing as a hobby a year ago and been practising intensively for an upcoming competition in the following month, thus leading to a possibility of the violent punches attained during training may have led to the traumatic injury.
Upon initial trauma, the patient complained of severe giddiness before passing out and this can be attributed based on the initial bleed from the bridging vein at the superior saggital sinus. Giddiness is a major symptom when a bleed occurs as it compromises the brain capacity by compressing brain tissue. As we know, the brain is made up of 80% brain tissue, 10% blood and the remaining 10% cerebrospinal fluid.
The principle of Monroe Kellie Doctrine stated that the total intracranial
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