The Balance of Payments in India mainly relies on services exports, remittances and the course capital flows, both foreign direct investments (FDI) and FII. It is very essential that all market participants, such as banks and other intermediaries be provided with the wherewithal so that they can undertake a risk management in a way that is scientific. One of the ways to access domestic, foreign exchange markets is to hedge on the underlying foreign exchange exposures. In addition, the facilities that are available as the booking of forward contracts were included in the domestic forex market in order to evolve and acquire volumes and depth (Sumanth, 2012). Some of the newer hedging instruments have put in place swaps and options in the
Exhibit 7 from the case study describes the currency development in medium term of the GBP and EURO against the dollar. We can observe that the currencies are exposed to high volatility, which means the company may register greater risk
Nestlé S.A. is a Swiss company and owns a prestigious position being the world’s leading nutrition, health and wellness group (Nestlé, 2016). According to its annual report (2015), this company is exposed to many risks caused by movements in foreign currency exchange rates, interest rate and market prices. The foreign exchange risk comes from transactions and translations of foreign operations in Swiss Francs (CHF). The interest rate risk faces the borrowings at fixed and variable rates. The market price risk comes from commodity price and equity price. The former risk arises from world commodity market for the supplies of coffee, cocoa beans, sugar and others. The later risk arises from the fluctuations of the prices of investments held. (Nestle annual reports, 2015). Thus, financial derivatives instruments are used by this multinational corporation in order to hedge these risks.
The presentation was scheduled for the first week of December 1990. Mr. Pross outlined the use of various derivatives, noting that they differed widely in their ability to reduce risk. If the company was, say, placing a large bid to buy a building abroad, one might prefer to use foreign currency options to hedge the currency risk in the event the deal fell through. He argued, however, that foreign currency futures were best suited to hedge the fluctuations in revenues arising from currency movements. Mr. Pross proposed a plan to hedge currency risk using futures which
With the development of multinational companies, financial risk has played an increasingly remarkable role in financial market. In order to overmaster interest risk, currency and price risks, multinational corporates tend to hedge their exposure to financial risk. In practice, Coca-Cola Company has charged its business for a period of one century and made it as one of the principal players in the beverage industry. Coca-Cola Company markets have 500 non-alcoholic beverage brands in more than 200 countries. The essay discuss the pros and cons of hedging and analysis the financial statement of Coca-Cola. Eventually, hedging is a reasonable secession in risk management for multinational companies.
Foreign exchange risk consists of three main types of exposures. First, transaction exposure is when a firm has a contractual obligation under which it supposed to receive or pay a certain amount in a currency that is different than its home currency. Transaction exposure has an effect of the firm’s income statement because the accounts payables or receivables can be affected by currency exchange rates. Second foreign exchange exposure is the translation which impacts the balance sheet of the firm. It occurs when consolidating financial statements of foreign units into a company’s home currency. The third type of foreign exchange exposure is the economic which influences a firm’s cash flows when exchange rates change. This type of exposure can impact assets, liabilities, or any type of anticipated foreign currency cash exchange.
IntroductionThis report is to check the hedging strategy that was used and lead to the huge loss of CITIC Pacific Limited and point out the importance of managing foreign exchange exposure through select appropriate hedging strategies. The huge loss of CITIC Pacific Limited and its cause is discussed in the first part. The importance of hedging and the tools of hedging are respectively reviewed in part two and part three. Finally, suggestions are given out on how to design proper hedging strategies for different enterprises.
This report is created with a discussion over several important international finance topics for instance, interest-rate parity, currency risk management, regarding description on Carrefour S.A. financing policies as well as hedging strategy. Additionally, we also discussed on which currency Carrefour should issue its 10-year, 750 million euro, annual coupon bond, its foreign currency risk exposure and a possible hedging decision in dealing with any or all of the identified risks.
General Motors was the world’s largest automaker and, since 1931, the world’s sales leader. In 2001, GM had unit sales of 8.5 million vehicles and a 15.1% worldwide market share. Founded in 1908, GM had manufacturing operations in more than 30 countries, and its vehicles were sold in approximately 200 countries. In 2000, it generated earnings of $4.4 billion on sales of $184.6 billion. The company is trying to accurately calculate the risk of a potential devaluation to the ARS. In doing so the company had to decide between two options on how to proceed; was it worth the costs to increase the size of GM’s hedge position beyond the standard policy or should GM Argentina rely on other approaches to cope with the expected
This report is based on a practical scenario solution of General motors. The report addresses the problem given in scenario which is the change in policy of hedging with detailed reasoning. The report then looks at the different available hedging instruments to the firm. Profitability of both instruments has been compared and lowest cost option was selected to mitigate the transactional risk. Translation risk has also been seen at different hedging ratio levels; current one and the proposed one. The options were more profitable to the firm that has been recommended. Argentinean subsidiary’s
Hedging foreign exchange risk protects from exchange rate fluctuations. Foreign currency forward contracts are to buy or sell foreign currency in a future date. Foreign currency option is right to buy or sell foreign currency or puts and calls. The advantages of forward contract are that contracts include the exact amount of a foreign currency, some specific
Hedging can be defined as a risk management mechanism or strategy which is used to prevent the chances of incurring losses which arise as a result of fall in prices commodities or currencies. It is a technique which is majorly used by the investors in protecting their capital against the effects of the economic situations such as inflation whereby the investors invests in the high yield financial instruments or take a position to cushion them against such effects (Investopedia, 2012).
There are three hedging options that are commonly used. Hedge is to reduce losses due to volatility of foreign exchange rates. Hedging instruments use options and futures which are derivative instruments.
Great Eastern Toys is a company in Hong Kong that exports a huge percent of its total sales to the North American and European markets and hence is exposed to currency risk. Previously, the company was occupied with expanding their business and the company 's management had never given much attention to currency risk until their recent meeting with their banker. The banker pointed out that the depreciation of the European currencies during the previous two years had resulted in a substantial loss of income. The company 's management was indeed convinced that they should begin to devote more time and manage their currency position. In this report, we are going to explore the different options for Great Eastern Toys to hedge
Mostly foreign currency derivatives are used for hedging foreign exchange rate risk caused by exchange rate adverse fluctuation. This study is aimed to determine different factors that affect the foreign currency derivatives usage. Secondary data of 112 non financial firms, taken from their annual reports and balance sheet analysis issued by State Bank of Pakistan, is used for analysis for the period 2008 to 2013. Mann Whitney U test was used to check differences in characteristics of foreign currency derivatives users and non-users. Results show that users of the foreign currency were categorized as to be those firms having higher liquidity, lower growth options, larger in size, lower leverage, higher managerial ownership, lower profitability and higher foreign exposure as compared to the non users of foreign currency derivatives. Logit regression model was used to investigate different factors affecting firm’s derivatives usage for hedging its foreign exchange risk. Results of the logit model illustrate that there is significantly positive relationship between firm size, liquidity, foreign exposure and managerial ownership. The results also show that corporations with higher liquidity, larger size, and larger managerial ownership are more likely to use foreign currency derivatives usage for hedging. Further results illustrate negative significant relationship between growth opportunities, leverage