Manic Depressive Treatments Essay

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Manic Depressive Treatments

Introduction

Lithium was discovered in 1949 by John Cade as a treatment for bipolar disorder. Since then, lithium has become a highly utilized medication for manic depression. Chemistry of Lithium and Route of Access

Name: Lithium
Group number: 1
Symbol: Li
Group name: Alkali metal
Atomic weight: [6.941 (2)] g m r
Period number: 2
CAS Registry ID: 7439-93-2
Block: s-block

Standard state: solid at 293 K
Color: silvery white/gray
Classification: Metallic

Lithium is a Group 1 (IA) element containing just a single valence electron (1s22s1). Group 1 elements are called "alkali metals". Lithium is a solid only about half as dense as water. A
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However a mixture of LiCl (55%) and KCl (45%) melts at about 430°C and so much less energy and so expense is required for the electrolysis.

cathode: Li+(l) + e- Li (l) anode: Cl-(l) 1/2Cl2 (g) + e-
(http://www.webelements.com/webelements/elements/text/Li/key.htm
l)

Soluble lithium compounds are readily absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract but not the skin; distribution is rapid to the liver and kidneys but slower to other organ systems
(Jaeger et al., 1985). Lithium crosses the human placenta
(ACGIH, 1991) and can also be taken up by infants through breast milk. Lithium is not metabolized and is excreted primarily in the urine.

Lithium is distributed rapidly to the liver and kidneys following ingestion, but equilibrium between serum and brain, bone and muscle is reached after 8-10 days (Jaeger et al.,
1985). Both the pituitary and thyroid glands concentrate lithium
(Ellenhorn and Barceloux, 1988). During chronic therapy, lithium levels in the brain are equal to those in the serum (Schou,
1976). In overdose patients, the lithium concentration in brain tissue may remain high even after blood serum levels are reduced
(Jaeger et al., 1985). Lithium can be present in breast milk at
30-100% of the concentration in the mother's serum (Arena,
1986).Lithium is not bound to plasma proteins and does not
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