Due to the Philippine's lack of economic growth and lack of quality jobs in the past 40 years, an increasing number of Filipina migrants are mothering their children from a distance. According to Rhacel Salazar Parrenas, a Professor at USC, the term "mothering from a distance" has damaging ramifications both for the mothers who leave and the children who are left behind. In order to provide for their families, they must leave them behind in the Philippines and take advantage of the greater labor market opportunities in other countries of Asia, Europe, and the United States. One of the largest suppliers of independent female labor migrants in the world, the Philippines has seen the formation of a growing number of female-headed…show more content… Women who disrupt the idealized image of the traditional family, in which, the woman’s primary responsibility is to care for her biological offspring. In the Philippines, transnational households are considered "abnormal or broken homes", and therefore viewed as a social and cultural tragedy. Transnational households are considered broken because the maintenance of this household divert away from traditional expectations in the family, the women as the nurturer and the men as the breadwinners; they do not meet the traditional division of labor in the family, and they swerve from traditional practices of socialization in the family. The socialization of children is expected to come from direct parental supervision as well as from other adults, but the geographic distance in transnational households impedes the ability of mothers to provide direct supervision to their children. In a world that values maternal presence, mothers who live apart from their children are often seen as unfit, unnatural, improper, or even contemptible, thereby deviating from the dominant social and moral expectations of society. Because a mother often is held primarily responsible for her children, her absence is implicated in any negative outcome associated with her children. According to a Philippine study, there are various types of problems that may and have occurred in children who are left behind.