Did you know that the number of lions has dropped by over 300,000 over the past 50 years, or that the lions in Africa are losing their habitat? In the Scope Magazine article, Attack of the Man-Eaters, by Lauren Tarshis— Colonel J. H. Patterson was a British engineer who was building a railroad in Africa in the late 1800’s. He had no idea what sort of terrors he would face during his journey. In the other Scope article, Meet the Lion Whisperer by Susan Orlean, a man named Kevin Richardson shares his amazing story of the bonds he has with his lion friends. Throughout both articles, they have many similarities and differences.
The last article talks about the 59th Unnamed Cave, in Florida. This cave is located in the eastern part of the Florida Panhandle. From the dates of the artifacts and the dates of the glyph, the site was occupied in the Late Woodland period. The cave was discover in 2007 when a group of cave explorer saw fine engravings on the wall. This site was the first cave art site that was found in Florida and it is the second rock art site that was found in the states. Rock art is very rare in Florida, but now with the site found there is a wider perspective on the importance of rock art. The site did not only include the petroglyph drawing of the past, but it included some artifacts that was use to help date the time that the cave was occupied.
The author Joy McCorriston, was a student at the Institute of Archaeology in London and found out about the chance to visit the Lascaux cave from a radio show contest. Although she didn’t “win” she was lucky enough to join the tour. She listens to stories from Monsieur Jaceues Marshal, a discoverer of the cave and the cave’s guard as she gets to tour the cave. Lascaux Cave’s discovery had come about because four local boys found a hiding place to tease and abandon an outsider, a Jewish boy sent south to flee Occupation in the north. (An alternative story of a lost dog negated the real and non-politically correct truth of the cave’s discovery).
The Chauvet Cave, which is located in the southern part of modern day France, is full of Palaeolithic (Paleolithic) paintings created about thirty to thirty-three thousand years ago. The last Ice Age period was estimated to be around one-hundred-and-ten to twelve-thousand years ago, and places this within it. However, it was only discovered about twenty-two years ago in 1994 by a group of “cavers” led by the man himself, Jean-Marie Chauvet. Today, the cave is compelling to many observers as it is described to be loaded with “skillfully executed” charcoal and carved creations including animals such as horses/stallions, deer-like figures, lions, hyenas, owls, panthers, and rhinos.
A. C. H., was discovered in the loft space above the office of the Keeper of Zoology—the office Hinton had occupied from 1936 to 1945. This was the first concrete evidence implicating Hinton in the Piltdown hoax (Gardiner, 2003). Contained in the trunk were x teeth similarly stained to the materials discovered at Piltdown I, while several other materials, such as elephant and hippopotami teeth and bone fragments, had been whitened similar in fashion to the ‘cricket bat’ found at the Piltdown II site; the cricket bat having been made form an elephant femur. Hinton had experimented with bone and tooth staining (De Groote et al., 2016) predominantly staining them with iron to match the gravels of a Pleistocene era (Gardiner, 2003)… Also among Hinton’s effects, were eight human teeth that had been stained with iron, chromium, and manganese (Gardiner & Currant, 1996), similar to those of the Piltdown site. When the fluorine dating method was implemented this further incriminated Hinton as the findings from the Piltdown I site evidenced “a recent ape jaw and canine had been artificially modified, stained and planted at Piltdown I, along with parts of a similarly stained recent human skull” (De Groote, 2016, p. 4). The method Hinton practiced (evidenced by the findings in his trunk) was unique to him—a signature—therefore, implicating him as the Piltdown
For years, it had been widely accepted “that small bands of humans carrying a generalized Upper Paleolithic tool kit entered the Americas around 11,500 radiocarbon years before the present” (Waters 1122); and that “Archaeologists called these presumed pioneers the Clovis culture, after distinctive stone tools that were found at sites near Clovis, New Mexico, in the 1920s and 1930s” (Curry 13). However, the “peopling” of the Americas and their presumptive date of arrival is a topic of great debate within the field of Archeology; and the discovery of the Paisley Caves in south-central Oregon has thrown a wrench in the once widely accepted hypothesis that the “Clovis complex is considered to be the oldest unequivocal evidence of humans in the
The animals ranged from horses to rhinos, and even cave lions. The drawings were detailed enough to allow scientists to decipher the paintings and learn what they were witnessing at that period of time. Along with the paintings of the animals, bones were found in the cave and that also revealed more about the life in the cave other than just the cavemen and women. Using all of this information given to them, the scientists were able to learn not only how the cavemen and women lived but how animals lived during this time. The drawings in the cave in Southern France seemed to be quite anatomically correct to the animals roaming Earth today. The drawings are so detailed that there is not much hesitation on what type of animal they could have been drawing, it is obvious what their intent was. A surprise regarding the animal paintings was the lack of anything other than mammals. Throughout the cave there were a handful of paintings depicting insects such as butterflies and the one sole drawing of a human, but besides that they animals were mammals.
The same text states, “ Another site discovered by Archeologists in the mid 1920s in Folsom, New Mexico, showed evidence of human hunters that trapped and killed ice age bison.” The Indians ability to hunt an animal as large as Ice Age bison shows that the Paleo- Indians were competent.
The overkill thesis may be after all a bogus clarification of the late pleistocene extinction with humans as the main driving force behind it, namely due to excessive over-hunting. Two things which may go against Martin’s idea of overkill is the assumption that the animals too small or environmentally
Through ice-free corridors and water logged routes, Paleoindians travelled from Alaska to Siberia to enter the New World. Over their travels, they discovered new tools, hunting methods and traveling/living techniques. Paleoindians in both North and Central America typically lived in bands of up to 50 people. They were makers of fire and creators of diverse stone tool technology. They had the same physical features in both areas, including hair colour and texture, skin tone, blood types and dentition marks. (Rivals & Semprebon, 2012, pg. 1608). These similarities are immediately noticeable when analysing an archaeological site, but others such as the original Paleoindian stone toolkit being present in each region, similar hunting methods and travel techniques become evident throughout the scrutiny of North and Central American sites.
From the furore over trophy hunting, the public could be forgiven for thinking that it was the major threat facing lions. But in reality, the key issues are loss of habitat, prey loss from bushmeat poaching and
Faith and Surovell hypothesize a statistical analysis will uncover whether a temporally spread out extinction or a quick extinction killed North America’s Pleistocene mammals, a debate that has split paleontologists and archaeologists into two diametrically opposed sides for years. (Faith and Surovell, 2009). The debate on the extinction method has been heated due to the absence of fossil records of 19 of the 35 genera (Faith and Surovell, 2009). Faith and Surovell test whether finding only 16 genera in the fossil record in the terminal timeframe (between 12,000 and 10,000 radiocarbon years ago or between about 11,800 - 9,400 B.C.) is a result of a sampling error, or an extinction happening over a long period of time (Faith and Surovell, 2009).
Lascaux is a complex cave with several areas (Hall of the Bulls, Passage gallery), it had been opened for the public after the world war two, and it closed to the public in 1963, it contains about 600 paintings and 1,500 engravings (ART HISTORY, VOLUME 1, PAGE 10). Lascaux became too popular in France because the visitors brought heat, humidity, exhaled carbon dioxide , and some other contaminants. The Lascaux painters had been drawn cows, bulls, horses, and deers. Along the rock one scene was discovered in a remote settings on a wall at the bottom on a stone lamp and spears. This scene is actually weird because it is telling a story which is the human who is suppose to be the hunter,was greatly simplified in form but recongnizably male with a head of bird or wearing a mask of a bird’s head had been lying on the ground, and the painting was also showing that there were a big bison appears above him. The bison has been emboweled and dead. As well as on the left side there was a rhinoceros running off (ART HISTORY, VOLUME 1, PAGE
The site is located on a deep alluvial terrace of a small stream that drains into the Rio Selegua and the Huehuetenango Basin (Figure …). Relatively steep valley sidewalls are present to the northwest, and the terrace slopes gradually down-slope to the east. Some considered the site to be a place where early Paleoamericans exploited now-extinct megafauna. An on-site museum presents findings from earlier projects, including a collection of obsidian artifacts, and the bone bed remains open for viewing (~3-4m below the surface) (Figure…).