Marine Biomes

1537 WordsFeb 8, 20157 Pages
Research Paper The ocean is one of, if not, the largest biome on earth. There are more than one million species of marine life. Covering over 70 percent of the Earth’s surface, the ocean is our planet’s largest habitat, containing 99 percent of the living space on the planet. This area holds the life of nearly 50 percent of all species on Earth. Like lakes, oceans are subdivided into separate zones: intertidal, pelagic, abyssal, and benthic. All four zones have a great diversity of species. The intertidal zone is the region along the shoreline between average low tide and average high tide. In other words, this region goes through cycles of submergence and exposure to air. Animals in this zone must be able to survive the extended periods…show more content…
At about 1,600 feet oxygen levels run low. Life still goes on with gills that are more efficient or by minimizing movement. Some animals that live here are swordfish, squid, wolf eels, and some species of cuttlefish. Many organisms that live in this zone are bioluminescent. This zone extends from 650 feet to about 3,300 feet. Some animals living in this zone will rise to the epipelagic zone at night to feed. In the bathypelagic zone the ocean is pitch black, meaning sunlight does not reach here. It is also known as the midnight zone. It lies between the mesopelagic and abyssopelagic zones. This zone is less densely populated than the epipelagic and mesopelagic zones. Besides the occasional bioluminescent organisms, such as lantern fish, there is no living plant life. It is difficult for fish to live here. The fish that do live here have become very energy efficient, since it is hard to find nutrients. Many have slow metabolic rates to conserve energy. The fish here have weak muscles, soft skin and slimy bodies. Animals in this zone are not threatened by predators that can see them, so they do not have powerful muscles. Animals need to have the right adaptations to survive in this lethal area. There are no plants because of the lack of sunlight necessary for photosynthesis. Most animals that live here survive by consuming falling debris from the zones above. This is known as marine snow. The abyssal plain is covered with soft sludge composed of dead
Open Document