Marine and Coastal Ecosystems Degradation Essay

1314 Words 6 Pages
The ocean still remains as one of the important natural resource capital of many nations. The numerous benefits (food, climate regulation, nutrients recycling, etc) particularly the quality of life derived from marine and coastal areas have raised global concern for the adoption of sustainable strategies that will ensure the existence of marine and coastal areas in its natural state with less impact caused by externalities.
The natural structure and function of coastal marine ecosystems are faced with a lot of environmental and ecological challenges.
The key issues of coastal marine systems sustainability are discussed below.
Coastal Marine Environmental Degradation
The degree of pollutions is of a greater concern when considering
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According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, fish stocks overexploited, depleted or those recovering from depletion accounted for about 28 percent in 2007. For instance Taiwan experienced a decline in offshore and coastal fisheries from 370.9 thousand tons in 1990 to 135.4 thousand tons in 2007 (Liu, 2012).
Countries in Asia and West Africa suffer from unsustainable fishing due to illegals fishing lack of monitoring systems among others. The benefits lost to fishing nations amounts to $50 billion per annum (UNCD, 2012). Among such benefits include income from source of employment it creates and food which is the main source protein for coastal communities, drugs tourism and so on.
Minerals located in and around the ocean are also at risk of being depleted as a result of the invasion of more sophisticated technologies.

Ecological and Biodiversity Health
Population growth in coastal regions coupled with urbanisation and industrialization has resulted to land reclamation for developing new cities, construction of habours and ports thereby affecting ecosystem of coastal areas especially estuaries, coral reefs and wetlands. From 1990 to 2008, there was an average sea reclamation of 285 km2 annually in china and since 1950s China has lost 57% of its coastal wetlands, 73% of its mangroves, and 80% of its coral reefs (CCICED, 2010).
The benefits and functions provided by
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