Marketing Literature Review

3985 Words16 Pages

Table of Contents Page

• Marketing as a management Function 3 • Integration of marketing Function 7 • Changes in Business Environment 10 • Marketing Challenges 15 • Bibliography 21

Marketing as a Management Function

Marketing as a management function which in its simplest term refers to the basic functions of management namely planning, organizing, leading and controlling (POLC). These four functions are necessary for the achievement of organizational goals. It is important that these activities should operate in harmony with one another since they are interrelated. For instance, according to Cole (1996), a manager cannot just do planning and ignore the other aspects.
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Motivation is an internal process that energizes people to engage in certain types of behaviours. Frederick Winslow Taylor’s Scientific Management Movement, was one of the earliest attempts to understand and to deal with the problem of worker motivation. Some major contributors to motivation theories are Abraham Maslow for the Hierarchy of needs theory, Douglas Mc Gregor for Theory X and Theory Y, Frederick Herzberg for Motivation-Hygiene Theory.

Leadership has been defined by Dobbins and Pettman (1997) as the ability to motivate people to work towards achieving common goals, to make ordinary people display extraordinary performance. There are different theories of leadership with various stages at its development: traditional theories, contemporary theories and future of leadership. The major contributors to leadership theories are Handy (1993), Kouzes and Pasner(1993), Cacioppe (1997), R. Likert(1961), Blake and Mouton (1964), Fiedler (1967), and Hersey-Blanchard (1968).


Controlling is the management function aimed at regulating organizational activities so that actual performance will conform to expected organizational standards and goals (Bartol 1997). Therefore, the controlling function consists of three steps: i) Establishing a standard or target, ii) Measuring current performance and comparing it with the standard, and iii) Taking corrective actions if deviations are detected.
Control is essential at every
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