Marxism and Structuralism

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Marxism and Structuralism:

• Marx  concerned with causes of conflict in society and believed that it was the result of struggle between different socio-economic classes.
• saying capitalism as a bondage from which people strive to be liberated.
• Theory of history based on historical materialism, where the system of economic production determined structures of society. All history was the history of class struggle between a ruling group, from which [came] a new economic, political and social system.
• Before capitalism, ownership of land formed the basis of political power - feudalism, followed by Capitalism which also contained the seeds of its own destruction.
• Capitalism built on principles of private ownership and the pursuit of
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The solution was to invest in what became know as” the Third World and the result was imperialism. For Hobson, imperialism did not benefit the country as a whole but only a selected group of industrialists and financiers.
Lenin’s regarded Imperialism as the highest stage of Capitalism – was interested to explain “the necessity for capitalist exploitation of lesser developed countries and the causes of war among advanced capitalist states”. Also accepted that underconcumption and overproduction caused capitalists to look for markets in the less developed states and to engage in Imperialism. Lenin also believed that imperialist policies reflected the existence of monopoly and finance capital. “capitalism had developed such that oligopolies and monopolies controlled the key sectors of the economy”, pushing out the smaller and bleeding the domestic markets dry and so this led to the need to look elsewhere for investment opportunities.

Marx believed that the growth of proletarian consciousness would result in revolution within capitalist countries. But for Lenin, imperialism explained why Marx’s revolution had failed to come about. The tensions within capitalism still existed but Imperialism provided the capitalists with a breathing space.

Dependency Theory: Prominence in the 1960s – coincided with decolonization process. Cold War
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