Masculinity And Femininity Case Study

3098 Words13 Pages
1.1. Introduction
1.2. Background of the Study
Ball et al. (2004) define culture as the sum total of the beliefs, rules, techniques, institutions, and artifacts that characterize human populations. Reiche (2011) defines culture as a set of shared values, assumptions and beliefs that are learnt through membership in a group, and that influence the attitudes and behaviors of group members. This definition includes three key characteristics: First, culture can be understood as a group phenomenon that distinguishes people of one group from another. From this perspective, cultures exist at many different levels, including organizational functions or business units, occupational groups, organizations, industries, geographical regions, and nations.
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In “masculinity” society, people are more competitive, assertive, and ambitious. Moreover, accumulated wealth and material possessions are always valued (Usunier & Lee, 2005). While in “femininity” culture relationships and quality of life are more valuable (ibid). Sweden is considered by Hofstede (1997) to be the most “feminine” country. Managers in masculine cultures are assertive decision-makers. They believe in facts rather than group discussions (Newman & Nollen, 1996). Feminine managers are “intuitive rather than decisive for consensus” and they listen to the suggestions of the groups (Hofstede, 1997, p. 94-96).
2.5. High vs. low context-communication
In a high-context culture, people interdepend on each other. Information is widely shared through the word with potential meaning. In a low-context cutlure, people tend to be individualized, kind of alienated and fragmented, people do not involve with each other too much (ibid). High context communication tends to engage an indirect way to express while low context communication prefers direct information exchange (Kim, Pan and Park, 1998, Richardson and Smith, 2007).
3.0. The context of national culture in multinational business
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The pro-grams may include (1) culture-specific information (data covering other countries, such as video packs and culturegrams), (2) general cultural information (values, practices, and assumptions of countries other than one's own), and (3) self-specific in-formation (identifying one's own cultural paradigm, including values, assumptions, and perceptions about others). One study found that Japanese assigned to the United States get mainly language training as preparation for the task. In addition, many companies use mentoring, whereby an individual is assigned to someone who is experienced and who will spend the required time squiring and explaining. Talks given by returnees and by visiting lecturers hired specifically for the task round out the formal part of
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