Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

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Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Abraham Maslow created the hierarchy of needs by studying and observing monkeys. He transitioned his ideas to human behavior and created one’s deficit needs. In Hemingway’s The Old Man and The Sea, the character Santiago has experienced the loss of his wife and the glory of being a fisherman. The old man is different from the rest of the fisherman, who are motivated by money and not to the craft of fishing. He is unconventional in society and isn’t affected by his financial needs. Although Santiago is mocked by society, his eyes still look young and undefeated. His imagination and aspiration of becoming the best fisherman overpower the hardships he has to face with society and nature. Through it all,…show more content…
At sea, his hands feel cramped and at times he feels fatigue, but that only gives him the energy to keep going on with the marlin. Santiago’s effortless and steady rowing keeps him “well within his speed” as part of his mastery of fishing. (Hemingway, p.30) His lines went straight down in the water and because he kept his line like that “there would be a bait waiting exactly where he wished.” (Hemingway, p.32) He has mastered fishing with precision, but he doesn’t have any luck to accompany him. The old man is independent because he goes out to sea alone and gives himself confidence by remembering the time at Casablanca. Lastly, Santiago has reached his self-potential because he has accomplished all of the deficit needs. He can solely focus on himself now that the four lower levels have been complete. Self-actualization focuses on who someone actually is and for Santiago it’s being able to catch the marlin. Sharks kill his biggest accomplishment and his dreams are shattered. Even though it seems that he’s lost all hope, he admits his mistake of going out to sea a little too far. Santiago is accepting of his errors and of his unlucky streak he has with fishing. While he has to face defeat, he doesn’t blame anyone for his failures. Even with nature against him, he still refers to the sea as feminine. He likes the way he is and is happy as long as he’s “dreaming about the lions” which is
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