Maternal Obesity Induce Offspring with Risk of Cardiovascular Disease

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Maternal obesity induce offspring with risk of cardiovascular disease

Introduction:
The rate of obesity for the human population has shown to be increased expeditiously in the past decades. It has continuously raised health concerns among the world, and is likely to remain in times to come. This phenomenon is primarily due to the lifestyle changes resulting in high-energy intake coupling with decreased physical activity (Cameron et al. 2003).
Obesity is identified by the high adipose tissue, resulting in the body mass index (BMI) equal to or greater than 30kg/m. The high BMI is responsible for many cardiovascular diseases (CVD), considered as a major contributing risk factor.

Figure 1. Prevalence of obesity at first prenatal visit
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2006), potentially due to an increased maternal nutrient availability of lipid that alters fetal growth. The outcome is mainly subjected to the high percentage of body fat rather than lean body mass. This excess weight gain during birth predicts the potential of overweight during childhood, which increases the risk of adolescent obesity. This finding is consistent with many cohort studies, which also indicate a lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, high serum triglyceride and fatty acid levels in offspring leading to the relative high body mass, resulting in a strong association between maternal BMI and childhood BMI (Gaillard et al. 2014 & Cianni et al. 2005). However, the outcome may partly be associated with lifestyle and genetic factors.

Diabetes
Obesity and type 2 diabetes are both classified as metabolic syndrome resulted from metabolic dysregulation. Both the obese mothers and the fetuses have shown a higher serum insulin and glucose concentration, which contribute to the high insulin resistance (Catalano et al. 2009 & Boney et al. 2005). However, the high exposure to insulin during utero development encourages fat deposition in the utero to serve as an the energy substrate for the utero, suggests a positive correlation to adiposity, hence, expressing a close association between diabetes and obesity in contributing to the development

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