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In Mathematics, it is rare that a new branch of mathematics is introduced. That means that even branches of math that have been around for hundreds of years are still technically new, or at least relatively new. One such branch of mathematics is probability. Probability is only three hundred to four hundred years old, so it easily falls into this category when compared to branches of mathematics such as Geometry which dates back all the way to ancient Egypt in around 2900 BC, when it first became important when an Egyptian pharaoh wanted to tax farmers who raised crops along the Nile River. To compute the correct amount of tax, the pharaoh’s agents had to be able to measure the amount of land being cultivated. Later it was used to build the pyramids.
Probability’s beginning happened because of recreational circumstances. A gambler 's dispute in 1654 led to the creation of the mathematical theory of probability by two famous French mathematicians, Blaise Pascal and Pierre de Fermat. Antoine Gombaud, Chevalier de Méré, a French nobleman with an interest in gaming and gambling questions, called Pascal 's attention to an apparent contradiction concerning a popular dice game. The game consisted in throwing a pair of dice 24 times; the problem was to decide whether or not to bet even money on the occurrence of at least one "double-six" during the 24 throws. A seemingly well-established gambling rule led de Méré to believe that betting on a double-six in 24 throws would

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