Mechanical Valve Induced Lung Injury

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During mechanical ventilation, patients are at risk of injuries to their lungs caused by improper settings on ventilators. Mechanical ventilator induced lung injury (VILI) can affect the lung in several ways. Some of the ways the lung become affected is by excessive pressure, excessive volume, and not enough volume. When the lungs are affected by excessive pressure its termed pulmonary barotrauma. On the other hand, if the lungs receive too much volume it’s called volutrauma. However, when the lungs don’t receive enough volume its termed atelectrauma. This paper describes how pulmonary barotrauma, pulmonary volutrauma, and pulmonary atelectrauma affects the lungs during mechanical ventilation and ways to prevent them from happening. The first ventilator induced lung injury that I want to discuss is pulmonary barotrauma. Pulmonary barotrauma is a lung complication caused by too much positive pressure forced into the lungs by a mechanical ventilator. Pulmonary barotrauma occurs when the alveolar begins to rupture due to elevated transalveolar pressure. Transalveolar pressure is a function of both the tidal volume and the overall compliance of the lungs. Researchers use plateau pressures to get an estimation of transalveolar pressure. Plateau pressures can be used as a tool to help measure for the risk of pulmonary barotrauma. Researchers have discovered that plateau pressures less than 30 cmH2O have shown to reduce the cause of pulmonary barotrauma. Guy W. Soo wrote

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