3.3. Explain the social and medical models of disability and the impact of each on practice
The Medical Model regards disability as an individual problem. It promotes a traditional view of disability, that it is something to be ‘cured’, even though many conditions have no cure. The problem is seen as the disabled person and their impairment, not society, and the solution is seen as adapting the disabled person to fit the non-disabled world, often through medical intervention. Control resides firmly with professionals; choices for the individual are limited to the options provided and approved by the 'helping' expert.
“The medical model is presented as viewing disability as a problem of the person, directly caused by disease, trauma, or other health condition which therefore requires sustained medical care provided in the form of individual treatment by professionals. In the medical model, management of the disability is aimed at a "cure," or the individual's adjustment and behavioral change that would lead to an "almost-cure" or effective cure.” (Langtree, 2012)
If a person with a disability can function day-to-day naturally and has adapted, that person is considered healthy. As advance practice nurses, the definition of health will continue to vary from patient to patient, but will still be a person’s most optimal level of functionality related to his or her surroundings.
Two of the three models of health and healing discussed by Dossey (1999) were Era II Body/Mind Model of the 1950s and Era III Body/Mind/Spirit Model of the 1990s. According to Dossey (1999), post World War II the Medical Doctors noticed that there was proof that the functioning of the human body can be affected by other factors such as stress and emotions which, can lead to diseases such as ulcers and high blood pressure. This model brought to light the realization that treating the human body is complex because when the physical body is not well the mentation of the patient is affected resulting in exacerbation of other
In order to understand health, different models or frameworks for thinking have been developed which have been useful. The Biomedical model which evolved since the 19th century from Galen’s (Greek physician 200AD) concept of pathogen, focused on removing the disease/disability and not on prevention or general well-being . The Biopsychosocial model however, doesn’t merely focus on the physical state of
A2. As I discussed above, there are different models of health and healing after which we have patterned our care and practice. Dr. Dossey (n.d.) wrote about three models or Eras, and how the understanding of health and healing, and the practice of medicine, has developed and changed over the last several hundred years. Although Era I was a very important time of medical growth when dealing with the physical part of our human body, I feel that Era III has brought a much more complete way of helping the patient reach a higher state of health and wellness.
Historically, Western Medicine has been divided into Eras. The first ERA, noted in the 1860’s, was referred to as the Mechanical Model. The medical world, as well as society, viewed illness as a purely physical entity. The mental and emotional components of illness were often considered as an afterthought. The second ERA, as described in the mid-twentieth century, is named the Mind/Body ERA. This was the time where attention was brought forth that there is a connection between the consciousness and the physical aspects of health and illness. Pscho-somatics was a coined phrase around this time. The third ERA is known as the Quantum Physics Paradigm (Dossey,1982). This era identifies transpersonal presence as its basis and accepts that the mind and the body, as well as non-local energies, affect health and illness.
Society has progressed both socially and technologically as has medicine. This includes our understanding of health and healing as evidenced by Dossey’s three eras of medicine. Era 1, beginning in the 1800’s, reflected the prevailing view that health and illness are totally physical in nature and therapies included surgical procedures and drugs. Era 2, starting in the 1950’s, related to the mind and body. Practitioners began to realize that emotions and feelings can impact health. Era 3, still developing today, began in the 1990’s and builds on the previous eras by adding the spirit and proposes that consciousness is not confined to one’s
Biomedical model of health is an approach which eliminates psychological and social factors (environment) but only comprises biological issues in trying to recognize or understand an individual`s medical illness/disorder. The biomedical model of health looks upon treatment in expression of changing the body by medical intervention forms. Also this model seeks to look at what is wrong and fix that part of individual as it focuses on illness rather than health as well as diagnosing an individual`s illness.
In this section of the NCTRC exam content outline I did not understand (A3) - concepts and models of health and human services (e.g., medical model, community model, education model, health and wellness model, person-centered care model, international classification of functioning, recovery model, and inclusion). According to the Medical Dictionary, the medical model puts emphasis on the disability using a problem-solving approach. It mainly focuses on the physical and biological aspects of the disease or illness. Medical care and treatment in a clinical setting can make it easier for the person to function and adapt to everyday life. This is considered the “cure” for the individual.
The Human Services is broadly defined, uniquely approaching the objective of meeting human needs through an interdisciplinary knowledge base, focusing on prevention as well as remediation of problems, and maintaining a commitment to improving the overall quality of life of service populations. The Human Services profession is one which promotes improved service delivery systems by addressing not only the quality of direct services, but also by seeking to improve accessibility, accountability, and coordination among professionals and agencies in service delivery Not forcing interning to institution setting. Instructional built services to community-based services are eligible Medicaid waiver program funding covers home service for individual who Cognitive disabilities such as 24 hours assistant, Homemaker, Night supervisor, personal care, respite care. Medical model treated by medical. That focuses on compassion, funding and handling disabilities. The social model of disabilities described that disabilities are caused by the way society is organized but medical model described disabilities people who are disabled by their impairments, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt,” the first president with a disability, was a great advocate for the rehabilitation of people with disabilities, but still operated under the notion that a disability was an abnormal, shameful condition, and should be medically cured or fixed”. both models and social developed over time by avoiding
When looking at the postmodern worldview, many people believe that science is unable to explain the meaning to life. The post-modernistic theory explains that the world consists of an energy that can be manipulated and controlled. As a result of this many scientists and health care workers are looking for a more holistic way of treating patients. In this way the physical, psychological and spiritual needs of the patient are met. This leads to the patient being in complete harmony with their environment (Shelly & Miller, 2006). As a result patients will not be thought of as just a disease but a whole person.
The biopsychosocial model of health is a multidimensional approach to health (Lecture 1, 2014). It focuses not only on the biology or physiology of a person, but also includes the psychology of a person and the manner in which society and culture influence health as well (Gurung, 2014). It was developed in the 21st century as an important theoretical framework to approaching health and medicine (Richtig, Trapp, Kapfhamer, Jenull, Richtig & Trapp, 2016).This approach makes the assumption that the mind and body connection is not only relevant but also vital to a person’s entire well being. It takes a holistic approach when treating an individual and can improve health in the
Doctors, machinery, patients, and the costs for each type of medical condition, and individuals who are treated in the healthcare field are all part of this system. I never knew that the outcome and results of certain medical problems are divided up into a three-tier system. It makes sense that the first tier is the health status patients with so+me degenerative conditions have, survival a big part of this process. The second tier is concerned with outcomes that are associated with the recovery process. This includes how uncomfortable a patient is physically, any retreatment that is required, short-term complications, mistakes, and consequences that affect the patient. The third tier is concerned with the patient being able to maintain one’s