This is an annotated bibliography of animal testing and if it’s morally justified. There are many opinions on the results and the entire process that it takes to test a cosmetic product or a medicine on an animal. There are many alternatives and benefits to animal testing but is it really justified? Or are animals in potential danger.
In our ever-changing world the race to find the best technological advancements has never been higher. Progress within the medical field has changed drastically in the last 50 years. “Health is driven by the technologies that cure the unhealthy. These technologies need to advance along with an advancing society. In the last five decades new and improved, less expensive, medicine has been produced” (Leonard). Behind all this advanced medicine are the technologies, or creatures, that are used to test and improve the medicine. Animals are used to test the drugs and medicine that are in route to be produced for human use. “The term "Animal Testing" refers to procedures performed on living animals for purposes of research into basic biology and diseases, assessing the effectiveness of new medicinal products” (Humane Society). There are people who side with, and agree that animal testing improves the lives of humans, and there are individuals who believe the harm this research brings to animals is unreasonable and can be prevented.
Ferdowsian and Beck go on to add that more evidence supports that animal testing comes at a higher cost to animals than was initially acknowledged. Accounts of anxiety disorders, changes in behavior, hormone levels, and the amount of pain animals endure now drive the conversation regarding reforming animal testing practices. It is also noted that the predictive value of animal models do not translate into clinical success. The majority of animal research does not lead to improving human health. Most argue the use of animals overall is a needless endeavor when new technologies are in place that can provide similar levels of advancement, and when human tissue is available that can offer a better understand of human health.
Every twelve months, more than 100 million creatures are executed in U.S. research facilities for chemical, medication, food, and cosmetics testing; science lessons; and interest driven experimentations (“Medical Testing on Animals Is Cruel And Unnecessary” 1). Some people are convinced that testing medicines on animals is needed so that one day, there may be
This is an annotated bibliography of animal testing and research to see if it’s morally justified. There are many opinions on the results and the entire process that it takes to test or experiment a cosmetic product or a medicine on an animal. There are many alternatives and benefits to animal testing but is it really justified? Or could animals be in potential danger.
Animal testing is a cruel way to try and develop new products. There are several other and much safer options that will get better results and potentially save up to two million animals every single year. The Animal Welfare Act is in place but only minimally protects certain animals and leaves many others, up to 95%, vulnerable to atrocious fates. The animals not protected by this act (mostly small or considered house pets) are most widely used and not related closely to humans. There are several alternative methods but they are being neglected since they are new and not being enforced because of it. A few countries and states have banned certain aspect of animal testing but others are encouraging this cruelty.
A Necessary Evil?” written by Danielle Paterson, a pre-vet student at James Madison University argues that animal testing should be stopped. Paterson explains the cruelty behind animal experimentation. To oppose her argument, a 2016 article by the title of “Medical Experiments on Animals Are an Important Element of Drug Development” written by Geraldine Wagner, a graduate of the state university of New York argues the importance of animal
Whether animal testing is considered to be useful or unnecessary in the development of medicine is an ongoing discussion. Animal testing is the issue Andrew Rowan and Jack Botting with Adrian Morrison discuss in both their articles. “Avoiding Animal Testing” was written in 2011 by Andrew Rowan and was published in The Scientist. Jack Botting along with Adrian Morrison are the authors of “Animals are Vital to Medicine,” which was published in the Scientific American. All three authors clearly state their position on this issue from the beginning of their articles, starting with each of their titles. In “Avoiding Animal
A rabbit lives its life trapped in a laboratory. It doesn’t get fresh air and has different products tested on it every day. The product can make the rabbit go blind or cause its skin to burn, but there is nothing the rabbit can do about it. This is what happens to animals every day from cosmetic companies who test their products on animals. According to Cruelty Free Kitty (2017), over 30 cosmetic companies continue to use animal testing to improve their products. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (2017), “the agency has consistently advised cosmetic manufactures to employ whatever testing is appropriate and effective for substantiating the safety of their products.” This means that if the company believes animal testing is the best option for their product they are allowed to do it. Testing cosmetics on animals is cruel and inhumane, and people should avoid using products that test on animals.
Every day, animals such as rabbits, chimpanzees, and mice take part of medical experimentation. “Chimpanzees share 99% of their DNA with humans, and mice are 98% genetically similar to humans. The United States and Gabon are the only two countries that allow experimentation on chimpanzees.” (The Jane Goodall Institute of Canada). What people don’t understand is that these animals contribute to medical discoveries regarding human health. Animals should be used for medical experimentation because they contribute to many cures and treatments that have saved lives, their genetic material appears to be similar to those of humans, they are similar to human beings in many ways, animals are the only organisms other than humans who we can experiment on, and the animals themselves benefit from the result of animal testing.
We often see animal testing as an inhumane act of cruelty, however, we do not recognize the benefits and reasoning behind it all. After carefully studying the reasoning behind animals in medical research, I was appalled by the numerous beneficial outcomes. Research professionals tells us “Medical testing on animals has provided humans with an understanding of how body reacts to certain medications, diseases, or vaccines (animalresearch.info).” Without conducting such research, humans would have no further advancements in medicine, nor any knowledge of their effects. Have you ever noticed the prominence of commercials advertising a new medication? Whether it was a new birth control, blood thinner, or vaccine, more than likely, an animal was used to test the medicine. Animal Smart researchers explains how “Vaccines such as smallpox, measles, mumps, diphtheria and tetanus would have taken much longer to develop without the use of animal research (animal smart). Such diseases would have taken the lives of many young children and adults if there were no
Many of us are unaware of the sheer number of animals that undergo constant suffering in the name of human vanity. Animal testing was originally introduced in the early 20th century and is still prominent today. It is morally unacceptable to experiment on animals for human purposes. The procedures used in animal testing are cruel and inhumane, nor are they the most reliable source of data; resulting in many mishaps. Moreover, with the perpetual advancements in technology, there are several alternative methods making animal testing unnecessary. If testing cosmetics and drugs on humans is unacceptable, what makes it acceptable to test on animals?
Every day, thousands of animals in laboratory cages undergo painful experiments. After three dogs were forced to ingest an experimental drug every day for five days, they experienced difficulties breathing and a high heart rate. One dog died and the other two were put to death one day later. Animal testing is beneficial for scientific growth but is very cruel and inefficient. Laboratories that have grown human organs and are testing them are getting better and more accurate results than a laboratory that runs tests on animals. ( humanesociety.org )
Animal testing is often shunned, although it helps us cure, treat, and control certain diseases. Most people don't acknowledge that animal testing is here to help us with medical research. Animal testing has helped researchers understand different diseases such as, typhus, tuberculosis, maintaining diabetes, rabies, and many more. The fact we are able to live longlasting, happy, healthy lives is incredible. Sacrificing other animals for our own benefit doesn’t sound good but look how far we’ve gotten. Researchers have cured and found ways of helping people with conditions and diseases, it’s amazing.