Genetics is the study of heredity genes, and traits. Like how our parents' traits and genes are passed down to us. Chromosomes are the huge chunk of genes that wrapped around the proteins. Humans are supposed to have the total of 46 chromosomes. Females have XX chromosomes and males have XY chromosomes. Chromosomes are passed down to offspring, as well as, genes. Also, Genes are strands of DNA; they are like the instructions manuals for our body. Genes are the one that code for the traits. Dominant and recessive traits are the two types of traits are that passed down to the offspring. Usually the offspring show the dominant traits since this trait is a lot stronger than recessive traits. There is a less chance that the offspring will show the recessive traits. Since the recessive traits can only appear if the dominant traits are absent.
Genetics can help answer questions about our traits and why we look different and advance in different ways from each other in the world. Chapter 1 explains the basics about how genes work, and the portrayal of DNA and RNA. Chapter 2 describes RNA more in detail and it consist of the explanation of the human genome. Specifically, Chapter 3 clarifies how evolution works and how it relates to genetic and medical research. Furthermore, Chapter 4 and 5 explains the knowledge researchers have about genes role in health and diseases, and how society is affected with the advances in medicine and science given approximate credit to these researchers.
Genes pertains to any living organism chemical make, which is passed from one generation to the next, and effect blood type, eye color, skin color, and other traits which help classify living organism. The study of Genes, or Genetics is considered a field of biology but is entwined with other sciences and studies. Certain fields of study focus on the genetic structure of living organisms and the effects that the environment have on genes, while at the same time, studying the effects of genes in an individual, and the effect on the environment caused by an individual.
Gathering Data on the Different Traits of the Garden Pea (Pisum Sativum), Organizing the Dominant/Recessive Phenotypes of 60 F2 Offspring and Determining Whether the Null Hypothesis is Rejected or Accepted Using the Chi-Square Test.
In chapter 6, we are introduced to Barbara McClintock, a scientist who would change how we viewed genetics as a whole. Similar to other some other female scientist, she was largely ignored for her ideas but we came to realize the importance of her research. McClintock focuses a lot of her research on corn and its genetic material and evolutionary history. By studying corn she found that certain areas of the corn would have different colors. For example, while most of the corn would be yellow, there could be purple sections within the same corn. Upon further research, she proved the hypothesis that sections of corn DNA were actually
Introduction For centuries, researchers have used Drosophila melanogaster, the common fruit fly, to study genetics. The benefits of using the fruit fly includes: its relatively short generation time, its large amount of available offspring for data, it is easy to store and handle in the laboratory and it is easily and cheaply obtained. Cross-breeding of four types of fruit flies were used in this experiment including: wild type males with normal wings vs. vestigial wing females, wild type males with red eyes vs. white eyed females, wild type male with red eyes vs. sepia eyed females, and wild type males vs. wild type females. In basic mendelian genetics, the terms dominant, recessive and sex-linked are used to describe the different types
The results show that under selection factors and environmental differences natural selection determines which allele should become more common. In the control simulation the frequency of white alleles to brown alleles, once this mutation was added, was about the same amount. It was almost half white and half brown. In simulation two the environment was an equatorial climate such as a forest and wolves were used as the predatory influence. Once the predatory factor was introduced it can be seen that the alleles of white fur decreased and at the end of the simulation the allele was almost lost. Thus, brown fur alleles were naturally selected in the equatorial environment. The fur color blends in with the environment helping them become harder to find by predators. Whereas, for the white bunnies their phenotype stood out in an equatorial environment causing them to be caught easily. Hence, it can be said that the brown fur alleles had a higher fitness which is why their occurrence was greater and that the white allele was less fit leading to less offspring being produced. Consequently, this supports my hypothesis that the brown fur allele would have a higher frequency in the equatorial environment.
One of the most important Brassica rapa features is that many generations can be grown in a short period of time for experimental analysis and comparison(Tsunoda, 1980).Brassica rapaplants are involved in many research works recently in which they are crossed with other crops to modify their genetic fitness(Tompkins, 1990). The Chi-Square ( ) test was used in this experiment to determine whether the statistical data supports or rejects the hypothesis.
The chi-square value for the data from the dihybrid cross was 0.993. The data supports the prediction. We fail to reject the null hypothesis. There is around an 80% chance (p=0.80) that a fair corn would yield the observed results.
The purpose of this experiment was to determine how changing environmental factors would affect the allele frequencies in a population of white, brown, and black moths. More specifically, the aim was to see if final allele frequencies would coincide with the Hardy-Weinberg theory of evolution, or if genetic drift, amplified by environmental disasters, would play a significant role in the outcome of the experiment.
Genes come in different varieties, called alleles. Somatic cells contain two alleles for every gene, with one allele provided by each parent of an organism. Genotype refers to the information contained in an organisms DNA, or genetic material. Its phenotype is the physical
Introduction: In 1866 an Austrian monk, Gregor Mendel, presented the results of painstaking experiments on the inheritance patterns of garden peas. Those results were heard, but probably not understood, by Mendel’s audience. Now, more than a century later, Mendel’s work seems elementary to modern–day geneticists, but its importance cannot be overstated. The principles generated by Mendel’s pioneering experimentation are the foundation for genetic counseling so important today to families with health disorders having a genetic basis. It’s also the framework for the modern research that is making inroads in treating diseases previously believed to be incurable. In this era of genetic engineering the
Genes build the phenotype of humans as well as the underlying genotype. Competition between cultural genes leads to varied success of genetic determinism. It can therefore be said that learnt traits such as those espoused within a specific culture, can produce what may seem to be the genetic genotype of an individual. Genes are not always advantageous in the
He reasoned that there were certain rules by which these characteristics were inherited. He guessed that each plant must possess some sort of unit that specified its characteristics. In fact, each must have two units, one from each parent plant. If the plant inherited two different units, then one would override the other. This was called the dominant unit, and the one that was overridden was called the recessive unit. Mendel's theories were not discovered till 1900, and it began the science called genetics , the study of a physical inheritance. From this name, Mendel's units were changed into genes.