The risk for women developing heart disease involves contributing factors that can be associated with age, weight, and diet. After menopause women are more likely to develop heart conditions that
The risk of heart disease rises as people age. Men develop an increased risk of heart disease at the ages of 45 and older, while women 55 and older are at an increased risk. “A woman’s natural hormones give some level of protection from heart disease before menopause.” (www.fda.gov) “After menopause, women develop heart disease as often as men, and women who have a heart attack don’t fare as well as men. Women are more likely than men to die from a heart attack.” (www.fda.gov) Obesity is caused by many different possible factors including “genetics, metabolic, psychological reasons, socicultural reasons, sedentary lifestyle, neuroendocrines, medicamental reasons, and high caloric nutrition.” (www.obesidad.net) Obesity is known to cause colon cancer, high blood pressure, and premature death. “Obesity is also associated with high blood cholesterol, complications of pregnancy, menstrual irregularities, hirsutism (presence of excess body and facial hair), stress incontinence (urine leakage caused by weak pelvic-floor
Over the past few years, heart disease has been the number one killer in women
heart disease is said to be the number one killer in women (A.H.E.M. Maas et
The World Heart Federation (2016) identifies older age as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease with the risk of stroke doubling every decade after hitting age 55. As far as gender, men have a greater risk of heart disease than pre-menopausal women, however, once women past menopause,
Schneider reviews American Heart Association spokeswomen, Nieca Goldberg. Goldberg warns that heart disease is the greatest threat among women. She stresses that women must be proactive in their own health, because many physicians don’t recognize women’s heart disease is different than men. The main point is that Schneider highlights what Goldberg emphasizes in her article; women should recognize heart disease symptoms. Goldberg suggests women should use the Mediterranean diet, moderate exercise, and stress management. The article mainly focuses on prevention and warning signs. Schneider highly recommended Goldberg’s writing.
Cardiovascular disease is the number one leading cause of death in the United States of America affecting eighty one million Americans every day; taking a life every thirty eight seconds which is equal to “two thousand three hundred Americans every day” (book, p. 414). The research shows that women are more at risk of having a heart attack than men. “Each year about 425,000 women have a stroke, that is, 55,000 more than men” (Heart Attack and Stroke: Men vs. Women, p. 7). Indeed, Heart attack is known to kill 1 of every 4 women in the country. (Women and Heart Disease Fact Sheet). “Cardiovascular disease claims more lives each year than the next four leading causes of death combined (cancer, chronic lower respiratory diseases, accidents and diabetes)” (Donatelle, p. 454) Still, for many women it is unknown that they actually have a higher risk than men to experience a heart disease. (Wolf, Miller, Ko, p. 405). This happens for many reasons, education level, social status, age and racial or ethnic differences.
Women face unique health issues beginning at age 50 and throughout the rest of their lives. Some women face greater risks for developing one or more of these conditions than other women. Older adults are more likely to suffer chronic illnesses (cancer, heart disease, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases).
These positions differ every few years based on evidence to support or refute previously held recommendations like cooling techniques for hot flashes, which was rescinded in the 2015 position statement ("Nonhormonal management of menopause-associated vasomotor symptoms: 2015 position statement of The North American Menopause Society," 2015). Turning points are experiences that represent a substantial change and lead to a new pathway (Glen H. Elder & Rockwell, 1979). Entering menopause is a turning point for many women, especially if onset signifies changes in their domestic roles or societal expectations. The timing of an event, or when in life something occurs, matters. The timing of menopause occurrence is typically in middle-age and may coincide with career changes, grandparenthood, or other new life trajectory. If, however, menopause onset was unexpectedly early, this may disrupt a woman’s reproductive plans and suddenly bring upon the transition to menopause. The life course perspective emphasizes understanding the life course within larger structures of time and history (Glen H. Elder & Rockwell,
Weight gain the hormonal changes of menopauses can add to weigh problems particularly in the mid-section causing increased belly fat named visceral fat that is underneath the subcutaneous fat. By exercising regularly during the day and not at night. Taking control of your diet intake play a huge part during menopause and weight gain, by monitoring your sugar and caffeine intake. Hair changes there are two issues while going through menopause. Thinning hair on the scalp and unwanted facial hair on the chin and chest area. It is caused by the rapid drop in estrogen levels combined with the slower reduction in androgen levels (a male sex hormone, testosterone). Skin changes can run the gamut, from dry itchy skin to oily skin causing adult acne. Irregular menstruation, hot flashes and night sweats, which transmit to insomnia and sleep issues. The best bedtime habits to have for hot flashes and insomnia, is going to bed at the same time each night and limit long naps during the day, wear cotton pajamas and keep your bedroom cool with good ventilation. There is also elevated heart rate causing you to feel like you’re having a panic attack, palpitation and the feeling of your heart pounding rapidly. Mood changes when hormones are fluctuating during this time, making it difficult to concentrate, you tend to be more forgetful, irritability, fatigue, anxiety and depression. Vaginal discomfort and urinary issues, because of the decline of estrogen the lining and tissues of the vagina and urinary tract become thinner and drier leading to less elastic and muscle control. Bone loss plays a big part during a woman’s life especially during menopause and postmenopause the risk factors for osteoporosis are higher during this time. Research indicates that up to 20% of bone loss can occur during these stages (Hormone Health Network page 22). A good way to prevent bone loss is through dairy products by eating dark
With menopause estrogen defiency occurs which is associated with increased severity and incidence of OA in women. Estrogen therapy reduces the risk of OA compared to those who are not taking it.(21)
Symptoms can emerge as the female body adjusts to the decrease in estrogen levels as a result of natural or surgical menopause. Conversely, some women may experience no symptoms where others may experience one or all. Inadequate estrogen levels can also contribute to changes in the vaginal and urinary tracts, which can cause painful intercourse and urinary infections. Symptoms may last for several months or years and have been reported to vary greatly in onset and severity. Fleeting hot flashes, night sweats, and fatigue are the most frequently communicated symptoms. Osteoporosis, a condition characterized by decrease in bone mass and density, causes the bones to become fragile and is a long-term condition associated with menopause.
Hormone replacement therapy is an FDA-approved treatment for menopause that affects most maturing women. The medications given to you during the therapy contain the hormones you need to counter the symptoms you are experiencing. Additionally, the Mayo Clinic estimates that the medications used in replenishing your hormones can also be effective for preventing heart disease.
The ideal cardiovascular risk group applies to women who are at the lowest level of risk, based on seven measurable criteria. It would stand to reason that if women can achieve these seven standards of ideal cardiovascular health, they would reduce their risk for CVD. Finally, these guidelines emphasized a lower cut point for women considered high risk using the Framingham risk score. The most recent Guidelines for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Women put out by the American Heart Association (AHA) in 2011 expanded upon the 2004 and 2007 recommendations for female-specific recommendations for CVD prevention for women in the USA.
Attention getter: Heart Disease is the leading cause of death in women in the United States. According to The Center for Disease Control (CDC), heart disease claimed more than 292,188 women’s’ lives in 2009, that’s 1 in every 4 female deaths. The National Coalition of Heart Disease states that “A woman dies every 34 seconds.”